Action Reconciliation Service for Peace

German: Aktion Sühnezeichen Friedensdienste , English: Action Reconciliation Service for Peace
Topic:
English - Explanation:

The German organisation Action Reconciliation Service for Peace (ARSP) is committed to working toward reconciliation and peace, as well as fighting racism, discrimination and social exclusion as a form of facing up to Germany's Nazi past. ARSP volunteers provide assistance to survivors of Nazi concentration camps and forced labour schemes and to mental health patients, the homeless, refugees, and individuals with disabilities. They work on the ground in community projects, at memorial sites and on anti-racism initiatives and help to preserve historical sites for future generations.

anniversary

German: Jahrestag , English: anniversary
Topic:
English - Explanation:

An anniversary is a date in the calendar that commemorates a notable historical event or on which a personality of strong national or religious significance is remembered or honoured.

Anschluss

German: Anschluss (an Deutschland) , English: Anschluss
Topic:
English - Explanation:

The German term "Anschluss" is used, also in English, to denote the de facto annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany in March 1938.

appraising history, learning about history, engaging with history, dealing with (one's) history

German: Geschichtsaufarbeitung , English: appraising history, learning about history, engaging with history, dealing with (one's) history
Topic:

armistice

German: Waffenstillstand , English: armistice
Topic:
English - Explanation:

An armistice is the temporary laying down of arms in a war, often a deliberate step along the way towards peace.

Aryan certificate

German: Ariernachweis , English: Aryan certificate
Topic:
English - Explanation:

During Germany's National Socialist (Nazi) regime, public servants, doctors and lawyers, in particular, had to produce an "Aryan certificate" proving their ethnicity if they wanted to keep working in their professions. This certificate could be a marriage, birth or death certificate, an officially recognised proof of one's ancestry, or official geneological records. Holders were only recognised as Aryans if the documents went back to their grandparents' generation. Members of the Nazi (NSDAP) party even had to prove their ancestry all the way back to 1800. Individuals were considered non-Aryan if their parents or grandparents were non-Aryan, especially Jewish. Just one non-Aryan parent or grandparent was sufficient for a person to be considered non-Aryan.

Aryanisation

German: Arisierung , English: Aryanisation
Topic:
English - Explanation:

The term Aryanisation denotes the Nazi-era practice of forcibly expropriating assets held by non-Jews and handing them over to non-Jews (referred to as Aryans), and the ever increasing limitations put on Jews in exercising their occupations.

attitude

German: Haltung , English: attitude
Topic:
English - Explanation:

An attitude reflects an individual's general outlook and influences how they think and act.

awareness of history, historical awareness

German: Geschichtsbewusstsein , English: awareness of history, historical awareness
Topic:

battlefield, battleground

German: Schlachtfeld , English: battlefield, battleground
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Over the course of history, the world's battlegrounds have seen much death, destruction and human suffering. The names of former battlefields are deeply embedded in the collective memory of those who were involved in the wars in question; the fields form a part of these groups' collective identity, regardless of whether they were victorious or not. Up until World War II, the only memorials erected on battlefields tended only to honour the victorious parties. Since then memorial sites have increasingly been designed as places for reconciliation.

biographical history

German: biographische Geschichtsarbeit , English: biographical history
Topic:
English - Explanation:

An example of teaching history through the use of biographies is the collection "Das Lebensgeschichtliche Netz", a German-language website. The individual biographies it lists provide an insight into life as it was between 1933 and 1945. These life stories - of victims and perpetrators alike - help readers even without prior knowledge to understand how National Socialism functioned.

Blitzkrieg

German: Blitzkrieg , English: Blitzkrieg
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Blitzkrieg is a Nazi-era method of warfare that Germany's Wehrmacht military forces used to invade the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France in a short space of time and push back the British expeditionary force. The effect of these Blitzkrieg manoeuvers as practised during World War II is that the attacked forces came under such pressure that they either rapidly capitulated or retreated, leaving behind their heavy weaponry. The term "Blitzkrieg" has since entered other languages, including English, French and Italian.

capitulation

German: Kapitulation , English: capitulation
Topic:
English - Explanation:

In international law, capitulation refers to a unilateral declaration of surrender. In a conflict, in return for laying down arms the capitulating party may demand certain concessions, for instance the approval of territorial claims or guaranteed protection for civilians against looting and attacks.

collaboration

German: Kollaboration , English: collaboration
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Collaboration refers to the cooperation between individuals or groups. Historically, the term carries negative connotations, notably the cooperation with enemies in times of war or with occupying forces. Individuals who cooperate with others in this sense are referred to as "collaborators".

coming to terms with history, facing up to history

German: Aufarbeitung von Geschichte , English: coming to terms with history, facing up to history
Topic:

coming to terms with the past

German: Vergangenheitsbewältigung , English: coming to terms with the past
Topic:
English - Explanation:

The German term "Vergangenheitsbewältigung" refers to the process of a nation coming to terms with its recent past. In Germany, that is largely its Nazi heritage.

commemoration project, work at memorial sites

German: Gedenkstättenarbeit , English: commemoration project, work at memorial sites
Topic:

concentration camp

German: Konzentrationslager , English: concentration camp
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Since the Nazi era, the term "concentration camp" has been synonymous with the labour and extermination camps run by the Nazi regime during World War II.

crimes against humanity

German: Menschheitsverbrechen , English: crimes against humanity
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Under international law, crimes against humanity are criminal offences. They are defined as acts that are broadly and/or systematically committed against civilians.

degenerate art

German: Entartete Kunst , English: degenerate art
Topic:
English - Explanation:

During the Nazi regime, "degenerate art" was the term assigned to all works of art or cultural philosophies that were considered incompatible with the Nazi's understanding of art and beauty, including Expressionism, Impressionism, Dadaism, New Objectivity, Surrealism, Cubism and Fauvism.

denazification

German: Entnazifizierung , English: denazification
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Denazification was an Allied initiative launched in 1945 to ban the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), abolish all Nazi laws, and rid Germany of physical symbols of the Third Reich in everyday life, such as road signs, books, uniforms, and medals and decorations. The International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg held a number of trials to identify the war crimes perpetrated by the most important perpetrators and Nazi organisations. The majority of Germans had to submit to denazification, which at first was performed by the Allies, later by German-run tribunals.

denial

German: Leugnung , English: denial
Topic:
English - Explanation:

One context in which the term "denial" is frequently used is the Holocaust, that is, the denial of Nazi crimes committed during the National Socialist regime. Specifically, Holocaust denial refers to the act of denying, or playing down, the Holocaust. Undeniable historical evidence notwithstanding, Holocaust deniers claim that the systematic extermination of around six million European Jews never happened.

deportation

German: Deportation , English: deportation
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Deportation denotes the state-sponsored removal of an individual to another territory. The Nazis deported Jews in Germany and in the territories they occupied and/or controlled during World War II, citing racial reasons. Between October 1941 and March 1943, the enormous number of Jews thus removed from Germany were deported to specially built areas known as ghettos (e.g., in Warsaw) or sent directly to concentration or extermination camps.

deserter

German: Deserteur , English: deserter
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Desertion means the departure without leave of soldiers from military service both during war and in peacetime. The individuals in question are known as deserters. More than 100,000 German soldiers deserted during World War II. Deserters who were apprehended felt the full force of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) judicial system: 22,750 of them were sentenced to death.

documentation centre

German: Dokumentationszentrum , English: documentation centre
Topic:
English - Explanation:

A documentation centre can, for instance, serve to educate the public about national socialism and/or function as a local memorial site.

euthanasia

German: Euthanasie , English: euthanasia
Topic:
English - Explanation:

During the Nazi regime (1933-1945) many seriously or incurably ill individuals, among them children and seniors, were killed by government order, for the Nazis considered them to be "unworthy of life". The Nazis themselves referred to these killings as "euthanasia" or "assisted death".

extermination camp

German: Vernichtungslager , English: extermination camp
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Extermination camps were concentration camps that, during the Nazi regime, were set up and run by units of the German paramilitary organisation SS in Poland and Belarus to exterminate large numbers of Jews and other groups persecuted by the Nazis.

fascism

German: Faschismus , English: fascism
Topic:
English - Explanation:

From the 1920s onwards, the term came to denote the extreme nationalist, heavily hierarchical, anti-liberal and anti-Marxist movements, ideologies and governance systems that attempted to supplant parliamentary democracies after the end of World War I.

Final Solution

German: Endlösung der Judenfrage , English: Final Solution
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Final Solution was the term used by the Nazis since July 1941 to denote their plan to exterminate all persons they considered Jewish in Europe and beyond. It was an objective they pursued systematically right up until the unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht armed forces.

forced labour

German: Zwangsarbeit , English: forced labour
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Over the course of World War II, more than 20 million foreign civilian labourers, concentration camp inmates and prisoners of war from all occupied territories, largely Poland and the Soviet Union, were forced to work for Germany.

gas chamber

German: Gaskammer , English: gas chamber
Topic:
English - Explanation:

The Nazis used gas chambers for the mass extermination of individuals for "racial" or political reasons. The gas chambers were located in killing centres and concentration and extermination camps.

gassing

German: Vergasung , English: gassing
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Gassing was the method by which the Nazi regime killed around three million Jews and tens of thousands of Sinti, Roma and other prisoners in the gas chambers it built in the extermination camps. The agent used was hydrogen cyanide, known in German as "Zyklon B".

Gastarbeiter

German: Gastarbeiter , English: Gastarbeiter
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Literally "guest worker", Gastarbeiter are individuals who were granted temporary residency in the Federal Republic or the German Democratic Republic under a labour recruitment scheme. During the 1960s, when the temporary residency requirement was lifted in practice, the term became a popular designation for all labour migrants in Germany.

genocide

German: Genozid , English: genocide
Topic:
English - Explanation:

The term "genocide" was coined in 1944 in reference to the intentional murder of Europe's Jews and other ethnic groups by the Nazis in Germany. Today, "genocide" is generally used to refer to the action of destroying a people or to the targeted persecution of ethnic groups that differ from other groups in terms of their language, religion or traditions.

Greek General Confederation of Labour 

German: Griechischer Gewerkschaftsbund , English: Greek General Confederation of Labour 
Topic:

group of victims

German: Opfergruppe , English: group of victims
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Community of people whose unifying characteristics (e.g. equal descent, religion, nationality, sexual/political orientation, etc.) make them into a group who have mostly suffered considerable injustice (e.g. murder, imprisonment).

historical audio archive

German: Tonarchiv erzählter Geschichte , English: historical audio archive
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Historical audio archives are a form of teaching history through the use of biographical material: contemporary witnesses and survivors tell their life stories and talk about what they have experienced. The audio recordings are archived, e.g., online. This enables users to listen to, empathise with and understand their stories.

historical-political education

German: historisch-politische Bildung , English: historical-political education
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Historical-political education, in the context of right-wing extremism prevention, seeks to encourage young people to engage in critical reflection of National Socialism in order to prevent the era and the ideology from becoming glorified or played down, and to raise awareness among the young generation of the dangers of inhuman, anti-democratic ideologies. To this end, this kind of education teaches about the crimes committed during the period in question and explains the social context and circumstances that allowed the crimes to happen in the first place. Parallels are drawn to young people's lives and realities today and issues such as responsibility and opportunities to take action discussed. Besides the actual teaching itself, young people are encouraged to engage with historical sites, e.g., by visiting memorial sites or attending guided tours of historical districts. This has been shown to be a valuable way to reach out to young people and help them empathise with the victims.

Holocaust education

German: Holocaust-Erziehung , English: Holocaust education
Topic:
English - Explanation:

The Holocaust, and National Socialism, are permanent features of the curriculum taught in all 16 of Germany's federal states. Holocaust education can help to raise young people's awareness of the dangers of anti-Semitism.

Interwar period, Interwar years

German: Zwischenkriegszeit , English: Interwar period, Interwar years
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Denotes the period between World War I and II.

invasion

German: Invasion , English: invasion
Topic:
English - Explanation:

In a historical/political context, "invasion" denotes the intrusion of armed forces into a certain territory.

Jew

German: Jude , English: Jew
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Jews are members of an ethnic-religious group or individuals who belong to the Jewish people and/or are of Jewish faith. The use of the term carries different connotations in the historical context of different countries, especially if they have Jewish minorities. There have been frequent attempts by Anti-Semites to change the racial definition of who ought to be considered Jewish.

labour recruitment agreement, agreement on labour recruitment

German: Anwerbeabkommen , English: labour recruitment agreement, agreement on labour recruitment
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Between 1955 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany signed labour recruitment agreements with Italy, Spain, Greece, Turkey, Morocco, South Korea, Portugal, Tunisia and Yugoslavia in order to meet its increased need for labour as the German economy expanded.

later-born individual

German: Nachgeborener , English: later-born individual
Topic:
English - Explanation:

In German, „Nachgeborener" (literally, "those who are later born") refers to the generation of grandchildren of those who lived through World War II.

local history

German: Lokalgeschichte , English: local history
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Local history is the study of history in a local or community context, e.g., a village, town or region, and of the way local history is documented.

martyred city

German: Märtyrergemeinde , English: martyred city
Topic:
English - Explanation:

The term "martyred city" refers to places where the German occupying forces committed crimes against the native population during World War II, for instance in Greece.

mass grave

German: Massengrab , English: mass grave
Topic:
English - Explanation:

In totalitarian regimes, the victims of mass murder are buried in mass graves. During World War II, the German Wehrmacht (armed forces) took retaliatory action in occupied Greece, France and Italy, among other countries, to kill entire village populations and buried them in mass graves.

mass murder

German: Massenmord , English: mass murder
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Predominantly used in criminological context, the term "mass murder" is also used in political science as well as colloquially to refer to events during which a large number of people are killed intentionally. One example is political mass murders perpetrated by a regime or by terrorists during an attack. Individual murders in the context of genocide are also often referred to as an instance of mass murder. In the context of the Holocaust and Porajmos (the Romani genocide), "mass extermination" emerged as a related term. Accordingly, historians cointed the term "extermination camp" in reference to the Nazi's industrial-scale death camps.

massacre

German: Massaker , English: massacre
Topic:
English - Explanation:

A massacre is an act of mass murder under particularly cruel circumstances, often defined as "indiscriminate slaughter" or "bloodbath", frequently motivated by hate or revenge. The terms used in an international law context are more sharply defined, such as "genocide", "war crime" or "crime against humanity", since the term "massacre" carries a set of vague connotations that lend themselves to propaganda and misuse.

memorial

German: Mahnmal , English: memorial
Topic:
English - Explanation:

A memorial is a form of commemoration in a public space to remind the observer of a historical event. Memorials, often designed to create a solemn mood, serve to keep the memory of said event alive through the generations.

memorial site education, memorial work, commemoration project

German: Gedenkstättenarbeit , English: memorial site education, memorial work, commemoration project
Topic:

memorial site seminar, seminar or workshop at a memorial site

German: Gedenkstättenseminar , English: memorial site seminar, seminar or workshop at a memorial site
Topic:

memory

German: Erinnerung , English: memory
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Memory can be defined as the sum total of all perspectives and representation of the past that characterises an individual or a social group owing to their specific socio-cultural position.

multi-perspectivity, multiperspectivity

German: Multiperspektivität , English: multi-perspectivity, multiperspectivity
Topic:
English - Explanation:

In the context of teaching history, multi-perspectivity means exploring historical issues from a variety of different angles and using different sources.

nation

German: Nation , English: nation
Topic:
English - Explanation:

The term "nation" denotes a larger group or community of people considered to have a shared language, traditions, customs, ethnicity, etc. 

nation-state thinking, nation-state-centric thinking

German: nationalstaatliches Denken , English: nation-state thinking, nation-state-centric thinking
Topic:

National Socialism

German: Nationalsozialismus , English: National Socialism
Topic:
English - Explanation:

National Socialism, also known as Nazism, generally denotes the movement itself, the National Socialist German Worker's Party (NSDAP), and the Nazi regime (1933-1945). The hallmarks of National Socialism were anti-Marxism, anti-liberalism, anti-parliamentarism, anti-Semitism and a racial ideology that was obsessed with "purity" and ethnic homogeneity. The eventual consequence of this radical racism was the systematic examination of Europe's Jews (known as the Holocaust). The foreign policy pursued by the Nazis was imperialistic in nature.

National Socialist crimes, Nazi crimes

German: nationalsozialistische Verbrechen , English: National Socialist crimes, Nazi crimes
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Nazi crimes include concentration camps, persecution of Jews, euthanasia, the murder of prisoners of war, massacres against civilians, the "extermination through labour" strategy, persecution of dissidents and homosexuals, and experiments on living humans.

Nazi crimes

German: NS-Verbrechen , English: Nazi crimes
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Also known as National Socialist crimes, Nazi crimes include concentration camps, persecution of Jews, euthanasia, the murder of prisoners of war, massacres against civilians, the "extermination through labour" strategy, persecution of dissidents and homosexuals, and experiments on living humans.

neo-Nazi

German: Neonazi , English: neo-Nazi
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Neo-Nazi is the term used to denote right-wing extremists who were born after 1945 whose beliefs and political attitudes openly resemble those of the Nazi regime under Adolf Hitler. They perpetuate Nazi heritage and SA and SS traditions and play down and glorify Nazi politics.

NS

German: NS , English: NS
Topic:
English - Explanation:

In German, commonly used abbreviation for National Socialism.

occupation

German: Besatzung , English: occupation
Topic:
English - Explanation:

After Germany capitulated and World War II ended, the Allied Forces (the United Kingdom, France, the USA and Russia) divided Germany into four occupation zones.

occupation zone

German: Besatzungszone , English: occupation zone
Topic:
English - Explanation:

After Germany capitulated and World War II ended, the Allied Forces (the United Kingdom, France, the USA and Russia) divided Germany into four occupation zones. The Allies quickly set up a temporary administration that was governed by the Allied Control Council. They also encouraged the establishment of political groups with a view to giving the country its own permanent government.

occupying power

German: Besatzungsmacht , English: occupying power
Topic:
English - Explanation:

In Germany, the term "Besatzungsmacht" is often used without further context to denote the Allied occupying forces in the German Reich. After World War II the forces were also referred to as the "Siegermächte", or victorious forces. The term "Drei Mächte" (three forces) is also in use, relating to the three Allies, Great Britain, France and the United States. The term "Vier Mächte" (four forces) includes France as the fourth.

partisan

German: Partisane , English: partisan
Topic:
English - Explanation:

A partisan is a member of an irregular military force. These groups are armed and operate behind enemy lines to attack and dispel foreign troops.

peace education

German: Friedenserziehung , English: peace education
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Peace education aims to prevent and manage conflicts and encourage their resolution by non-violent methods and means.

peace movement

German: Friedensbewegung , English: peace movement
Topic:
English - Explanation:

A peace movement is a social movement that actively works to prevent wars, conflicts and armament and that rejects war as a political tool. In many Western countries, the arms race of the 1980s gave rise to a major peace movement that garnered broad support from many social groups, and which aimed to implement alternative security concepts and, in the long term, achieve full nuclear disarmament.

perpetrator generation, generation of perpetrators

German: Tätergeneration , English: perpetrator generation, generation of perpetrators
Topic:
English - Explanation:

The German term "Tätergeneration" denotes the generation that perpetrated Nazi crimes.

place of remembrance, memorial site

German: Erinnerungsort , English: place of remembrance, memorial site
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Places of remembrance are sites that allow for collective remembrance and collective identity. They have a strong symbolic power and the capacity to reach out to large groups of individuals and to provide a connection across generations.

political fatigue, political lethargy, voter fatigue

German: Politikverdrossenheit , English: political fatigue, political lethargy, voter fatigue
Topic:
English - Explanation:

The term "political fatigue", also referred to as political lethargy or voter fatigue, describes two different types of negative attitude on the part of citizens:
1) general disenchantment with politicians and political parties, expressing dissatisfaction with current politics,
2) general disenchantment with politics and governments, expressing dissatisfaction with the political system and with democratic institutions.

prevention of extremism, extremism prevention

German: Extremismusprävention , English: prevention of extremism, extremism prevention
Topic:

reconciliation

German: Versöhnung , English: reconciliation
Topic:
English - Explanation:

In the context of child and youth services and international youth work, the term is used to refer to all activities that help to come to terms with history, manage conflicts, and create peace between states, peoples and groups of individuals. In the context of German-Greek cooperation, the term denotes the process of coming to terms with the conflicts that exist to this day as a result of the atrocities committed by the Nazi regime in Greece during World War II. See also "reconciliation efforts".

reconciliation efforts, reconciliation work

German: Versöhnungsarbeit , English: reconciliation efforts, reconciliation work
Topic:
English - Explanation:

In the context of child and youth services and international youth work, the term is used to refer to all activities that help to come to terms with history, manage conflicts, and create peace between states, peoples and groups of individuals. In the context of German-Greek cooperation, the term denotes the process of coming to terms with the conflicts that exist to this day as a result of the atrocities committed by the Nazi regime in Greece during World War II. See also "reconciliation".

remembrance

German: Erinnerungsarbeit , English: remembrance
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Remembrance, or the construction of memory, can take place in many ways, e.g., using memorial services, memorial sites, commemorative events, eyewitness testimonials, museums, cemeteries, biographies, etc.,

reparation

German: Wiedergutmachung , English: reparation
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Reparation refers to compensation for an injustice suffered by an individual. Said compensation can help to repair or mitigate the damage caused, or can redress an imbalance. For instance, reparation may be made in recognition of losses suffered by surviving victims of the Nazi regime.

reparations

German: Entschädigung , English: reparations
Topic:
English - Explanation:

On 10 September 1952, Germany signed an agreement (known as the Reparations Agreement) in Luxembourg pledging to introduce legislation to compensate victims of the Holocaust for losses to their livelihoods and assets. However, former forced labourers had to wait for years until said compensation was actually paid; in the years that followed, the Federal Republic of Germany merely paid compensation to individual states. Following a series of drawn-out negotiations, the Foundation "Remembrance, Responsibility and Future" (German acronym: EVZ) was established in 2000 under a law providing for payments to be made to victims of forced labour.

reports by contemporary witnesses, memories of contemporary witnesses

German: Zeitzeugenbericht , English: reports by contemporary witnesses, memories of contemporary witnesses
Topic:

resentment

German: Ressentiment , English: resentment
Topic:
English - Explanation:

A negative emotion triggered by prejudice, feelings of inferiority, envy or similar, often unconscious.

resistance

German: Widerstand , English: resistance
Topic:
English - Explanation:

There was resistance against the Nazi regime on the part of individuals, groups and institutions on the territory of the German Reich and in the Wehrmacht-occupied territories both prior to and during the Nazi era.

resistance fighter

German: Widerstandskämpfer , English: resistance fighter
Topic:
English - Explanation:

The term refers to an individual or group of individuals who, typically collectively, engage in resistance movements against a certain, usually political, power.

right-wing extremist young person (pl.: people), young right-wing extremist

German: rechtsextrem orientierter Jugendlicher , English: right-wing extremist young person (pl.: people), young right-wing extremist
Topic:

right-wing populism, right-wing populist movement

German: rechtspopulistische Bewegungen , English: right-wing populism, right-wing populist movement
Topic:

sabotage

German: Sabotage , English: sabotage
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an economic or military process to achieve a certain (often political) objective. During World II, sabotage was one way to demonstrate resistance to the Nazi regime. For instance, Greek partisans committed acts of sabotage by attacking the offices of the German occupiers or ambushing military transports. German soldiers retaliated by massacring inhabitants of Kalavrita on the Peloponnese peninsular and of Distomo near Delphi.

search for traces, quest for traces

German: Spurensuche , English: search for traces, quest for traces
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Denotes the systematic search for traces, e.g., in connection with World War II or in the context of Holocaust remembrance.

source

German: Quelle , English: source
Topic:
English - Explanation:

A text, person or group from which or whom information is directly obtained.

Star of David

German: Judenstern , English: Star of David
Topic:
English - Explanation:

The yellow Star of David was introduced by the Nazi regime as a mandatory symbol that had to be worn by individuals who, according to the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, were legally considered Jewish.

Trümmerfrau

German: Trümmerfrau , English: Trümmerfrau
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Trümmerfrauen (literally "rubble women") were women who cleared the rubble from the bombed-out cities because many men had fallen during the war or had been taken prisoner. The rubble had to be processed in such a way to make it usable for reconstruction. Some women took on the role voluntarily; others were obligated to do so by legislation adopted by the Allied Control Authority.

victim

German: Opfer , English: victim
Topic:
English - Explanation:

In a historical/political context, the term "victim" refers predominantly to victims of war, mass extermination and mass crime.

view of history, understanding of history

German: Geschichtsbild , English: view of history, understanding of history
Topic:
English - Explanation:

The term is generally taken to mean the sum total of the views of history maintained by an individual or a group.

Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge

German: Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge , English: Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge is a humanitarian organisation charged by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany with recording, maintaining and caring for the graves of German war casualties abroad. In 1953, the Volksbund started to organise international youth exchanges and work camps throughout Europe. The education officers in the regional branches collaborate with schools and higher education establishments and carry out projects in war cemeteries both in Germany and internationally.

war grave

German: Kriegsgräberstätte , English: war grave
Topic:
English - Explanation:

A war grave is a burial site for persons who died during a war.

war memorial

German: Kriegerdenkmal , English: war memorial
Topic:
English - Explanation:

A war memorial commemorates warriors or members of the armed forces (not the victims of war) who fell in a war. War memorials are part of the landscape in almost all countries that were involved in World War II. Many of their inscriptions were later extended to include the names of those fallen during World War II. War memorials have also been erected in other countries to commemorate other conflicts.

war reparations

German: Reparationszahlungen , English: war reparations
Topic:
English - Explanation:

War reparations are payments to cover damage or injury inflicted during a war. The term denotes a financial compensation or financial or material damages payable by the defeated party or country in return for alleged or actual damage inflicted on another, victorious, party or country to that party or country. As the term suggests, reparations are a form of "repair". The damage in question may relate to assets, real estate and human beings. The type and scope of war reparations are typically laid down in a peace treaty signed upon conclusion of hostilities.

website of a memorial site, website of a place of remembrance

German: Gedenkstättenportal , English: website of a memorial site, website of a place of remembrance
Topic:

Wehrmacht

German: Wehrmacht , English: Wehrmacht
Topic:
English - Explanation:

Wehrmacht is the term used to denote the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany.

World War 2, World War II, Second World War

German: Zweiter Weltkrieg , English: World War 2, World War II, Second World War
Topic:

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