JiVE.国际青少年工作 - 体验多样化

German: JiVE. Jugendarbeit international - Vielfalt erleben , English: JiVE. Youth Work International - Experiencing Diversity
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

德国的青少年政治倡议活动,促进教育和分享。其目标是:让所有的青少年能获得国际青少年工作的服务。

English - Explanation:

JiVE is a German youth policy initiative for education and participation that aims to give all young people access to international youth work.

LGBT群体

German: LGBT , English: LGBT
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

该缩写包括男女同性恋者、双性恋者与跨性别恋者。

English - Explanation:

LGBT is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.

交叉性歧视

German: Intersektionalität , English: intersectionality
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

如果不同形式的歧视和劣势交叉混合出现在一个人身上,就可以将其称为交叉性歧视。这些“不平等维度”例如可以源自社会经济背景、残疾、种族、肤色或性取向。各个维度可以相互削弱,但也相互增强,从而导致个人需求出现极大不同。

English - Explanation:

When various forms of disadvantage and discrimination coincide in one person, this is referred to as intersectionality. These "dimensions of inequality" can take a number of shapes, including socioeconomic background, disability, ethnic origin, skin colour or sexual orientation. The dimensions can have a mutually weakening but also reinforcing effect, so persons subject to intersectionality may have widely differing needs.

人权观点

German: Menschenrechtsansatz , English: human rights perspective
Topic:

使受侮辱, 污名

German: Stigmatisierung , English: stigmatisation
Topic:

公民勇气(例如承担社会责任)

German: Zivilcourage , English: moral courage
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

公民勇气,是进行干预的勇气,可以通过各种行动表现出来,例如干预暴力行为、公开抗议察觉到的不公正和歧视,或反对仇外的偏见口号。进行干预的目的通常是捍卫民主价值观。

English - Explanation:

Moral courage is the courage to take action for moral reasons. This can take various shapes, for instance when a witness to an act of violence intervenes to help, protests openly against perceived injustice or discrimination, or takes a stand against xenophobia. The aim of demonstrating moral courage, typically, is to defend democratic values.

协助有移民背景的青少年融入新生活环境的服务工作

German: Jugendmigrationsdienst , English: youth migration service
Topic:

即时打字翻译员

German: Schriftdolmetscher , English: speech-to-text interpreter
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

即时打字翻译员,尽可能快地逐字、或者以概括的形式记录记录人们所说的话,以便让有听力障碍的人通过阅读来关注演讲、讲座之类等活动。非常重要的是,这种工作的“实时性质”能让有听力障碍的人积极参与(讨论、询问等)。即时打字翻译(与手语翻译相比),主要是为那些有严重听力障碍或晚期失去听力的人提供服务,他们通常(不像早期失去听力/耳聋的人那样)没有或只有有限的手语知识,但可以很好地看懂书面语。

English - Explanation:

Speech-to-text interpreters, convert spoken language either verbatim or in summarised form to text as fast as possible. This enables hard-of-hearing persons to follow speeches or presentations by reading the resulting text. It is crucial that in these settings, given their real-time character, the recipient has the opportunity to participate actively (by engaging in a discussion or asking questions). Unlike sign language interpreting, speech-to-text interpreting is primarily designed for hard-of-hearing or late-deafened individuals who, in contrast to early-deafened or deaf individuals, have no or very little command of sign language, but are able to follow written text with ease.

参与方面的障碍

German: Teilhabehindernis , English: obstacle to participation
Topic:

参与权

German: Recht auf Teilhabe , English: right to participation, right to participate
Topic:

参与(项目活动方面遇到的)障碍

German: Zugangsbarrieren , English: barriers to access
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

也被称为:参与阻碍。这是指参与(国际青少年工作)项目活动遇到的障碍。

English - Explanation:

In this context, the term refers to barriers to access to (international youth work) activities.

古怪的, 不合群的, 不合标准的

German: queer , English: queer
Topic:

多代人居住楼, 多代人活动中心

German: Mehrgenerationenhaus , English: multi-generation community centre
Topic:

多元文化, 多元文化性

German: Multikulturalität , English: multiculturalism
Topic:

多样性

German: Diversität , English: diversity
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

各种不同类型(例如种族、宗教、文化、语言、残疾情况、能力、教育水平、社会出生背景、经济条件、健康状况、生活环境)。

English - Explanation:

Diversity denotes differences of all kinds, e.g., ethnicity, religious beliefs, culture, language, disability, abilities, education, social background, financial means, health, lifestyle etc.

好客文化, 欢迎文化

German: Willkommenskultur , English: welcoming culture
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

好客文化,指的是一个社会对待移民的积极态度。该概念涵盖的范围包括国家性及民间社会性措施,这些措施促进积极态度的发展,并让移民感到自己受欢迎。

English - Explanation:

The German term "Willkommenskultur" (welcoming culture) refers to a welcoming attitude to immigrants. Semantically, the term also covers state and civil-society measures that generally promote a culture of welcome while reassuring immigrants that they are welcome in Germany.

学习障碍

German: Lernbeeinträchtigung , English: learning impairment, learning difficulty
Topic:

容易语言

German: Leichte Sprache , English: simplified language
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

容易语言,是受到特别规则进行规范的简单语言。该规则由2006年成立的容易语言网络组织发布。它包括语言规则、拼写规则,并给出印刷出版及媒体用语方面的建议。通过使用容易语言,那些受各种原因影响而德语水平有限的人,能更容易理解文本。

English - Explanation:

Simplified language (German: "Leichte Sprache") is a form of plain language that adheres to a set of rules published by the German organisation "Netzwerk Leichte Sprache" (established 2006). The rules govern phrasing, spelling, and recommended fonts and media. Simplified language is designed to assist individuals who, for various reasons, have difficulty in understanding German, to comprehend German texts.

对伊斯兰教的敌意

German: Islamfeindlichkeit , English: Islamophobia
Topic:

对多元性有清晰了解

German: Diversitätsbewusstsein , English: diversity awareness
Topic:

对多元性有清晰了解的

German: diversitätsbewusst , English: diversity-aware
Topic:

对多元性有清晰了解的国际青少年工作

German: diversitätsbewusste internationale Jugendarbeit , English: diversity-aware international youth work
Topic:

对残障人士不利, 对残障人士有敌意

German: Behindertenfeindlichkeit , English: inaccessibility, disability hate crime, disability-related hostility, disability-related discrimination
Topic:

对残障人士有敌意的, 不利于残障人士的

German: behindertenfeindlich , English: inaccessible, disability-discriminatory
Topic:

对穆斯林的敌意

German: Muslimfeindlichkeit , English: Islamophobia
Topic:

平等参与

German: gleichberechtigte Teilhabe , English: equal participation, equitable access
Topic:

德国移民背景青少年协会

German: Verein von Jugendlichen mit Migrationshintergrund (VJM) , English: young immigrants' group, young immigrants' association
Topic:

心理疾病

German: psychische Krankheit , English: mental illness
Topic:

性别歧视

German: Sexismus , English: sexism
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

性别歧视,指的是基于性别及其背后的意识形态和态度的歧视。性别歧视,尤其指的是妇女由于其性别所属,而受到歧视和压迫。因此,性别歧视是基于不平等的意识形态,尽管这种歧视和抗拒并不是针对少数人群体而进行的。

English - Explanation:

Sexism is a form of discrimination based on gender and in turn, on the ideologies and attitudes underlying that discrimination. In particular, the term refers to the disadvantage and oppression of women based on their gender. In other words, sexism is based on an ideology of inequality, even though it is not targeted specifically at a minority.

性别角色定型, 性别刻板印象, 性别偏见

German: Geschlechterstereotypen , English: gender stereotypes
Topic:

性别身份认同

German: Geschlechtsidentität , English: gender identity
Topic:

性取向

German: sexuelle Orientierung , English: sexual orientation
Topic:

性教育学

German: Sexualpädagogik , English: sex education
Topic:

感应式助听设备

German: Induktionsschleife , English: induction loop
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

通过感应式助听设备这一技术设备,听力迟钝的人在举办活动的场所,可以获得音乐或讲话之类的音频信号。这些声音信号被转化成电子信号,通过房间里铺设好的磁感应线圈,可以将这些信号发送出去。而内置特殊接收线圈的助听器,可以不受干扰地、更清晰地接收这些信号。

English - Explanation:

Induction or inductive loops are electromagnetic communication systems that help to make audio signals such as music or speech accessible to hard-of-hearing persons in a room. The audio signals are amplified and transmitted by the induction loop or coil in the room. These signals are picked up by special hearing aids and are then audible to the listener without any distracting ambient noise.

手语

German: Gebärdensprache , English: sign language
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

手语,指的是视觉上可感知的一种自然语言,耳聋的及有严重听力障碍的人使用它来进行交流。他们使用手势、面部表情,默语和身体姿势的结合,将这些元素组合成句子和句子语序,进行交流。

English - Explanation:

Sign language is a visual form of communication used predominantly by deaf or hard of hearing persons. Sign language uses gestures, facial expressions, mouthed words and body movements or postures that are combined to form sentences and entire messages.

手语翻译者

German: Gebärdensprachdolmetscher , English: sign language interpreter
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

口语中也被称为手语译员,参见词条:手语。

English - Explanation:

拥有较少机会的年轻人

German: junger Mensch mit geringeren Chancen , English: young person with fewer opportunities (ypwfo)
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

这一概念用来描述和同年人相比,处于不利地位的青少年,因为他们面临一个或者多个排斥性因素、障碍,让他们无法参与社会及融入社会。这些障碍可能是:残障、健康问题、教育相关的各种困难、文化区别、社会经济或地理障碍。

English - Explanation:

The term denotes a young individual who is at a disadvantage over their peers because they are subject to one or several issues that marginalise them and prevent them from participating equitably in society. These issues can include disability, health problems, educational difficulties, cultural differences, economic, social or geographical obstacles.

敏感化策略

German: Sensibilisierungsstrategie , English: awareness strategy
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

敏感化策略,能让人们注意到到某个概念、事实或问题。在残疾问题方面,可以采用不同方法来实现这一策略。在国际融合青少年交流领域,实施敏感化策略框架下,人们必须建立一个信任和安全的环境,建立无障碍框架条件,并相应采取适当的融入方法,以确保相互打交道时能实现彼此尊重。

English - Explanation:

An awareness strategy serves to assist individuals in becoming aware of a certain term, issue or problem. In the context of disability, such strategies can take various forms. When deploying an awareness strategy in inclusive youth exchanges, a trusting and safe atmosphere must be created, along with an accessible environment, plus suitable integration measures must be put in place to ensure that all participants can interact in a respectful manner.

无人陪同的未成年难民

German: unbegleiteter minderjähriger Flüchtling , English: unaccompanied minor refugee
Topic:

无障碍

German: Zugänglichkeit , English: accessibility
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

例如进入建筑物或参与活动时,是否存在(身体方面或智力方面的)障碍。

English - Explanation:

Refers to the presence or absence of barriers to access (physical or intellectual) to buildings or activities, for instance.

无障碍, 畅通无阻

German: Barrierefreiheit , English: accessibility
Topic:

无障碍的, 没有阻碍的

German: barrierefrei , English: accessible
Topic:

晚期回归德国的返迁者

German: Spätaussiedler , English: ethnic German resettlers
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

晚期回归德国的返迁者,指的是:根据基本法规定,这些人是德国人,他们回到其祖先的德国故乡,并长期定居于此。如果这些属于德国民族的人能表明自己的故乡属于德国民族,并证明自己能用德语进行简单对话,那他们能以晚期回归德国返迁者的身份,被德国接纳。

English - Explanation:

Ethnic German resettlers (German: Spätaussiedler) are defined as Germans in the sense of Germany's Basic Law who left the republics of the former Soviet Union to establish permanent residence in Germany. They have to have declared a commitment to German traditional culture in their home country and demonstrated the ability to hold a simple conversation in German.

暴力预防

German: Gewaltprävention , English: prevention of violence, violence prevention
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

预先减少、阻止暴力,就是暴力预防的目标。重要的实施力量尤其是警察、司法机构、学校、青少年专业工作、青少年媒体保护。暴力预防的一个重点群体就是青少年儿童。问题领域包括心理和身体暴力。这两种情况下,青少年儿童既可能是受害者,也可能是施害者。网络霸凌现象这一例子就能清楚地显示这一点。

English - Explanation:

The aim of violence prevention is to reduce or even prevent violence before it happens. Major stakeholders in this regard include the police, the judiciary, schools, youth welfare organisations and organisations working to protect minors from harmful media. Physical and psychological violence are considered to be particularly problematic. Children and adolescents can be the target of both these types of violence and even be perpetrators themselves. (Cyber) bullying is a good example of this.

有助于残障人士的, 对残障人士友好的

German: behindertenfreundlich , English: disability-friendly
Topic:

有移民背景的青少年

German: Jugendlicher mit Migrationshintergrund , English: young people from the immigrant community, young members of the immigrant community
Topic:

残疾人代表组织

German: Selbstvertretungsorganisation , English: disabled persons' organisation (DPO), disability community organisation
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

残疾人代表组织,与自助组织相反,重点并不在医疗方面,而是代表身患残疾的各种人,并且提出政治主张。根据联合国残疾人权利公约专业委员会(2014年)的定义,残疾人代表组织的成员,至少有一半是残疾人,这类组织由残疾人管理、指导和领导。

English - Explanation:

Unlike self-help groups, DPOs are not concerned with the provision of medical support. Rather, they represent persons with disabilities of all kinds and are political in nature. In accordance with a definition coined by the UN technical committee on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, at least half of the members of a DPO must have a disability. A further requirement is that the DPO be managed by persons with disabilities.

残疾;残障

German: Beeinträchtigung , English: impairment
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

联合国残疾人权利公约写明,残障人士是:“身体、精神或者感官出现残障情况,令他们受到各种障碍的影响,无法完全、有效且平等地参与社会生活。”(第一条)

English - Explanation:

The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities refers, inter alia, to "those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others" (Article 1).

残障人士

German: Menschen mit Beeinträchtigungen , English: individuals with impairments
Topic:

残障人士平等法

German: Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz , English: Act on Equal Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities
Topic:

残障人士自助行动

German: Behindertenselbsthilfe , English: disability community action
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

残障人士联合会,从残疾人自助的意义上,代表残障人士或忍受慢性疾病人士的利益,尤其在政治领域代表其成员的利益,让他们能参与社会、融入社会。

English - Explanation:

Disability community organisations represent the interests of persons with disabilities or chronic disease in line with the self-help principle. Specifically, they lobby on behalf of their members to achieve social participation and inclusion.

特殊教育学

German: Sonderpädagogik , English: special education
Topic:

社会凝聚力

German: sozialer Zusammenhalt , English: social cohesion
Topic:

社会弱势青少年

German: sozial benachteiligter Jugendlicher , English: disadvantaged young person, young person from a disadvantaged background, young person with fewer opportunities, young person from a disadvantaged family
Topic:

移民

German: Migrant , English: immigrant, person from the immigrant community, member of the immigrant community
Topic:

移民协会

German: Migrantenverein , English: immigrant community association
Topic:

移民社会

German: Migrationsgesellschaft , English: nation of immigrants
Topic:

移民者组织

German: Migrantenorganisation , English: immigrant community organisation
Topic:

移民者自发组织(MSO)

German: Migrantenselbstorganisation (MSO) , English: immigrant community organisation
Topic:

移民背景

German: Migrationshintergrund , English: immigration background, immigration community membership
Topic:

移民迁入史

German: Zuwanderungsgeschichte , English: immigration background, history of immigration
Topic:

符合残障人士需求的, 能供残障人士使用的

German: behindertengerecht , English: (handicapped) accessible
Topic:

简单语言

German: Einfache Sprache , English: plain language
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

简单语言,指的是标准语言或专业语言的简单化表达。语言风格更为简单、明了、清晰。与德语里的“简易语言”相比,简单语言没有固定的规则。

English - Explanation:

Plain language is a simplified version of standard or technical language. It avoids verbose, unclear language and jargon. There are no hard and fast rules for using plain language as such, although guidelines do exist. A more rigid variant of plain language is simplified language ("Leichte Sprache" in German), to which a set of rules apply.

联合国残疾人权利国际公约

German: UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention , English: UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
Topic:

融合及多样性策略

German: Inklusions- und Diversitätsstrategie , English: Inclusion and Diversity Strategy
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

欧盟的融合及多样性策略,旨在促进多样性。差异应该变成学校的积极源泉,而不应引发消极的竞争思维和偏见。

English - Explanation:

The Inclusion and Diversity Strategy sets out to embrace and celebrate diversity so
that difference becomes a positive source for learning rather than the cause for
negative competition and prejudice.

融合及多样性项目

German: Inklusions- und Diversitätsprojekt , English: inclusion and diversity project
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

这些项目能积极融合拥有较少机会的青少年,并且(或者)关注融合和多样性问题,最终这些项目应让拥有较少机会的年轻人受益。

English - Explanation:

Project that actively involves young people with fewer opportunities and/or addresses issues relating to inclusion and diversity that ultimately benefit young people with fewer opportunities.

融合性教育体系

German: inklusives Bildungssystem , English: inclusive education system
Topic:

融合指数

German: Index für Inklusion , English: Index for Inclusion
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

“融合指数”是在融合性价值基础上,为学校共同发展制定的一项指南。该指数帮助所有参与者确定学习和参与方面的障碍与资源。学校和其他教育机构可以由此来检查自己在融合领域的文化、结构和实际工作的实施程度如何。该指数由托尼•布斯( Tony Booth)和梅尔•埃斯科(Mel Ainscow)于2000年首次提出,用来促进学校发展,此后一再修订,并使用在其他领域。

English - Explanation:

The Index for Inclusion is a set of materials to guide schools through a process of inclusive school development. It is about building supportive communities and fostering high achievement for all staff and students. Schools and other educational institutions can use the Index to review their cultures, policies and practices and to identify the barriers to learning and participation that may occur within each of these areas. The Index for Inclusion was first published in 2000 by Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow and since has been repeatedly reviewed and adapted for use in other areas.

融合的, 融入的, 包容的

German: inklusiv , English: inclusive
Topic:

融合策略

German: Inklusionsstrategie , English: inclusion strategy
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

用来融合残障人士的策略,例如通过国际青少年工作。

English - Explanation:

Strategy for the integration of people with disabilities, e.g., in international youth work.

设立在学校里的幼儿园, 为有特殊辅导需求的儿童(例如残障儿童)设立的辅导班

German: Schulkindergarten , English: Schulkindergarten
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

一些联邦州设立了这类学校教育机构,针对的群体是那些要接受学校义务教育、但是尚未到达入学年龄的孩子,这类机构为其提供学前准备。与之相反,在巴符州,这类学前机构针对的群体是残障儿童,这些儿童经证实需要获得更多的特殊教育学辅导。

English - Explanation:

In some German federal states, the term "Schulkindergarten" is used to refer to a class for children who are of school age but not yet ready to enter grade 1. In the state of Baden-Württemberg, the term refers to a pre-school establishment for children with a disability who require special-needs education.

语言教育学

German: Sprachpädagogik , English: language education, language teaching
Topic:

语言教育学的

German: sprachpädagogisch , English: language-education (adj.)
Topic:

语言能力

German: Sprachkompetenz , English: language skills, lingustic competence
Topic:

语言能力培养, 语言能力的促进

German: Sprachförderung , English: early childhood promotion of language skills
Topic:

跨文化学习

German: transkulturelles Lernen , English: transcultural learning
Topic:

跨文化性, 文化间际性

German: Transkulturalität , English: transculturality
Topic:

针对残障人士开展的专业工作

German: Behindertenhilfe , English: services for persons with disabilities/a disability, disability services
Topic:

针对特定群体的敌意

German: Gruppenbezogene Menschenfeindlichkeit , English: group-focused enmity, outgroup enmity, outgroup hate
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

针对特定群体的敌意(GMF),指的是特定的、常常较弱的群体由于其被认定的特征或者被挑选出来的特征,而受到贬低。除了种族主义和仇外心理,针对特殊群体的敌意还包括下列情况:对某一宗教群体的贬低(反犹太主义、仇视伊斯兰教);敌视其他性别倾向的人(同性恋恐惧症、性别歧视);展示已经确定下来的特权以及出于某些身体特征(残疾人)、社会标准(无家可归者或者长期失业者)歧视他人。针对特定群体的敌意,也可以表现得不引人注目,例如只是在意见表达方面展示出来,但也可以表现为歧视、排斥、甚至是暴力形式。

English - Explanation:

Group-focused enmity (GFE) refers to the denigration of specific, primarily weaker, groups on the basis of assigned or selected characteristics. In addition to xenophobia and racism, GFE comprises denigration based on a specific religious affiliation (anti-Semitism, islamophobia), the disparagement of sexual otherness (homophobia, sexism), the demonstration of established privileges as well as denigration based on physical characteristics (in the case of disabled persons) or social criteria (in the case of the homeless or the long-term unemployed). GFE can be expressed subtly, for example in the form of opinions. However, it can also take the form of discrimination, ostracism or even violence.

障碍

German: Barriere , English: barrier
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

要实现融合,就意味着要完全消除各种(进入)融合的障碍。这些阻止进入融合的障碍,不仅仅指的是空间的障碍(人们常常将这个词和无障碍环境联想到一起),还包括语言障碍、社会障碍(例如害怕与人打交道、偏见、歧视),此外还有与任务相关的障碍(例如体育类型、游戏流程等等),或者机构性障碍,例如特定的先决条件(比如要成为一家协会的会员或者要在一般劳动市场从事一项工作)。

English - Explanation:

Enabling inclusion means eliminating barriers (to access) completely. Barriers to access are not just of the physical kind (although that is the primary association triggered when talking about accessibility); they can also be linguistic, social (e.g., fear of interacting with others, prejudice, discrimination), functional (e.g., certain sports, games etc.) or institutional (inability to gain membership to a club or access to the general labour market).

(残障人士)助理

German: Assistenz , English: assistance
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

指的是为残障人士提供的服务。助理为残障人士完成其受身体限制而无法完成的事宜。残障人士助理,是由残障人士自己决定的专业工作,与之相反的是由外人决定给残障人士提供特定帮助。

English - Explanation:

The term "assistance" denotes services provided to persons with disabilities. Assistants take care of matters that persons with disabilities are incapable of taking care of themselves because they are disabled. "Assistance" refers to a form of support the extent of which the person with disability decides themselves, in contrast to "support", where the scope is determined by a third party.

(社会)性别

German: Gender , English: gender
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

(社会)性别的意思是:不能刻板地从“女性”和“男性”角度出发看待人,而是要考虑到人的区别性和多样性。没有人只是男性或女性,但是社会生活中,很大程度上人们受到分配的性别角度影响。因此,重要的是要认识到性别差异,但如同联邦宪法法院所说的那样,不能将其固定为传统的角色分配。使用(社会)性别这个概念,总是意味着对性别的设想是可以改变的。

English - Explanation:

Gender does not just refer to female or male gender; it also means taking account of the differences between and the diversity of individuals. No one is just "male" or "female". The way we coexist as members of society is in many ways determined by the gender roles we are assigned. That is why it is important to remain aware of gender differences but not, as Germany's Federal Constitutional Court has stated, to consider them rigid and non-negotiable. "Gender" should hence also be considered a category that can change over time.

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