App;应用程序

English: app
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

应用程序,是英语词"application"的缩写,这个词已经融入德语中。自从苹果 iOS App Store(2008年)出现后,在德语区这个词几乎只用来表示移动性设备里的应用,也就是智能手机和平板电脑里的应用软件。

English - Explanation:

An abbreviation of the word "application", the term "app" is commonly used in everyday parlance. In the German-speaking areas, since the iOS App Store was launched in 2008, the term has been used almost exclusively to refer to mobile apps - applications designed for mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets.

IT安全

English: IT security
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

IT安全,旨在保护计算机系统免受硬件和软件的损害,这些损害产生的原因是服务中断或误用。

English - Explanation:

IT security denotes the protection of computer systems against damage to hardware and software as well as against damage resulting from systems failure or misuse.

JIM青少年、信息、(多)媒体研究

English: JIM study
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

JIM是青少年、信息、(多)媒体的缩写。自1998年以来,人们每年进行一项JIM青少年、信息、(多)媒体基础研究,研究目标是12至19岁群体如何处理媒体和信息。除了确定当前状况,收集的数据还用于制定教育、文化和工作领域新纲领的战略及新纲领制定的起点。JIM研究是一项长期项目。因此,一方面,人们不断描述和记录总体发展及趋势。同时另一方面,在个别调查中处理特殊问题,以研究当前媒体的发展。

English - Explanation:

JIM (as part of the name "JIM study") stands for "Jugend, Information, (Multi-)Media" (youth, information, [multi] media). The JIM study has been conducted annually since 1998 to explore how young people aged 12 to 19 use information and media. Apart from providing a snapshot of the current situation, the data are a basis for designing strategies and new concepts for education, culture and employment. The JIM study is a long-term project, which allows the researchers to identify and document general developments and trends while examining specific issues in the individual years that help to reflect developments in the media.

MOOC慕课

English: Massive Open Online Course (MOOC)
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

这个词在德语中的含义是:大规模开放式在线课程。慕课是针对大量观众(大规模)的在线课程。它们通常是免费的(开放的),并且世界上所有人可不受限制使用。唯一的要求是能接入互联网。慕课通过网络提供课程(在线),通常有固定的开始和结束时间(课程),为学习小组提供交流和合作论坛。成功完成课程后,课程参加者将收到证书。

English - Explanation:

MOOCs are online courses aimed at large audiences ("massive"). They are generally free of charge ("open") and can be freely accessed by users anywhere in the world. The only precondition is access to the Internet. MOOCs are offered online and usually start and end at a predetermined time. Learners can use forums to communicate and collaborate with fellow users. Having successfully completed a MOOC, users are issued with a certificate.

YouTube用户

English: YouTuber
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

用户会在YouTube视频网站上上传、制作视频,甚至出现在视频中。

English - Explanation:

A person who uploads, produces, or appears in videos on the video-sharing website YouTube.

互联网自由

English: Internet freedom
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

也被称为网络中立性。互联网自由包括对互联网、数字内容的非歧视性访问,并在网络中实现所有数据的平等传输。缺乏互联网自由的主要原因是缺乏基础设施或国家审查。资料来源:数字化和可持续发展词汇表,联邦经济合作发展部(BMZ)主编出版,2016年。

English - Explanation:

Also known as net neutrality, Internet freedom denotes discrimination-free access to the Internet and to digital content and the equitable transmission of all data online. Insufficient Internet freedom is mainly the result of an insufficient infrastructure or government censure.

仇恨言论

English: hate speech
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

这个词在德语中也使用英语词Hate Speech来代替。仇恨言论,指的是对他人加以贬低、攻击,或使得他们受到仇恨或暴力攻击。常常是种族主义、反犹太主义、或者性别主义方面的评论,这些评论以特定的人或群体为目标。因此,仇恨言论,是针对特定群体的敌意现象的上层概念,或者在网络以及社交媒体空间里对群体进行煽动现象的通称。

English - Explanation:

Hate speech is used to refer to utterances that denigrate or attack individuals or incite them to engage in hate and violence. Hate speech can also mean racist, anti-Semitic or sexist utterances that are aimed at certain individuals or groups. In other words, hate speech is the umbrella term for a phenomenon known as group-focused enmity, or sedition, online and/or on social media.

伤害性网络行为

English: harmful online behaviour
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

社会发展成为媒体社会,主要采用数字方式进行互动,人们产生矛盾的空间,由此得以扩大。 网络欺凌、路人大战、(网络中的)攻击,都是通过在线媒体而实施的各种形式的暴力。然而,任何形式的网络暴力的共同点就是:它会损害一个人在现实世界中的独立主权和社会声望。

English - Explanation:

Our media-heavy society, where most human interaction takes place online, has created a wider space in which individuals can carry out conflicts. Cyberbullying, shitstorms and online bashing are all forms of violence that are executed online. What they all have in common is that they violate people's integrity and their reputation in the real world.

使用媒体上瘾

English: media addiction
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

也被称为:依赖使用媒体

English - Explanation:

僵尸网络

English: botnet
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

僵尸网络,指的是自动化的有害软件群体,也就是所谓的恶意控制功能的程序代码(来自英语词:robot)。僵尸网络的非法营运人,将恶意程序代码装载在用户电脑上,而用户对此一无所知。非法营运人利用这些电脑来达成自己的目标。

English - Explanation:

A botnet is a collection of connected devices (known as bots) whose security has been compromised by malicious software. The operators of illegal botnets infiltrate the bots without the knowledge of their owners to direct the devices for their own purposes.

儿童搜索引擎

English: child-safe search engines
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

儿童搜索引擎,为6至12岁的儿童提供受保护的上网空间。 通过搜索引擎,他们只能打开媒体教育工作者检查过的网站。 在德国,helles-koepfchen.de,fragfinn.de或blinde-kuh.de都属于这类搜索引擎。

English - Explanation:

Child-safe search engines provide a safe space for Internet users aged 6 to 12. The search engines only return pages that have been verified as suitable by media education experts. German-speaking child-safe search engines include helles-koepfchen.de, fragfinn.de or blinde-kuh.de.

关注者

English: follower
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

关注者在网上关注特定作者或特定主题的报道。

English - Explanation:

A follower is someone who follows articles written by a certain author or on a certain topic via an online channel.

创作共用授权条款

English: Creative Commons (CC) licence
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

创作共用授权条款,德语的意思是创造性共同财产,一家非营利性组织发明并制定了多种标准的条款合约,也就是创作共用授权条款合约。现在创作共用授权条款一共提供六种不同类型的条款合约,这些合约制定了传播创造性内容的法律框架条件。通过创作共用授权条款,作者可以将自己的作品免费提供给他人使用,使用者无需事前征得同意。合约中明确表明,人们可以如何使用这些作品:例如只能复制这些作品,或者他人可以改变这些作品,甚至再版这些作品。

English - Explanation:

Creative Commons is a non-profit organisation that develops and releases standard licence agreements, known as Creative Commons licences. Meanwhile, six different standard licence agreements exist that govern the sharing of creative content. The creators can use these licences to share their content with others free of charge without them having to ask for permission beforehand. The agreements stipulate exactly what may be done with the content in question, for instance whether it may only be copied or actually adapted and shared in its new form.

加密货币

English: cryptocurrency
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

例如比特币

English - Explanation:

e.g. Bitcoin

博主

English: blogger
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

博主,或者国际上也称为博客博主,是一个博客文章的编辑者或撰写者,使用网站或自己的网页发表文章。博主基本上是文章的作者,常常从第一人称视角撰写,并融入自己的个人观点。

English - Explanation:

Blogger refers to individuals who write blog posts or maintain entire sites or portals with text entries; the sites/portals are known as blogs. The authors' names appear above their entries, which are typically written in the first person and express the writers' personal opinions.

反制言论

English: counterspeech, counter speech
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

如果网络中的仇恨及煽动言论不受评论、加以保留,会给人们带来伤害和威胁。此外,发表仇恨言论的人觉得自己在为沉默的多数人发言。反制言论的意思就是:对这类仇恨言论加以回复,提出论据或疑问,为相关者提供支持,并支持不含仇恨的意见多样化。

English - Explanation:

If hateful and incendiary language is left to spread online, it can have a hurtful and threatening effect. In addition, lack of action can lead the perpetrators of hate speech to believe that they speak for a silent majority. Counterspeech is a possible response to hate speech and can take the shape of arguments or questions, and supportive messages directed at the targeted individuals, to redress the balance and create a plurality of opinions without hate.

发送信息服务

English: messenger service
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

例如WhatsApp。

English - Explanation:

国家数据保护局

English: national data protection authority
Topic:

在线参与平台

English: online public participation platform
Topic:

在线聊天

English: webcast discussion
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

也被称为:网络谈话、互联网上的现场讨论。

English - Explanation:

A live discussion that is broadcast online.

大数据

English: big data
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

来自英语区的“大数据”这个概念,指的是过于巨大、复杂、快速或者结构过于不清晰的数据,因此无法采用人工传统方法来处理这些数据。在德语区,这个词的传统说法为“Massendaten”。“大数据”常常在技术层面,描述数据交流处理年代,在社会层面则是社会巨变的原因。

English - Explanation:

The term "big data" denotes data sets that are, for instance, too big, too complex, too short-lived or too unstructured to process them using manual or other customary methods. "Big data" is often used as a catch-all term for digital technologies that are held responsible for ushering in a new era of digital communication and processing (technical consequences) as well as for social change (social consequences).

媒体伦理学

English: media ethics
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

媒体伦理学的任务是:媒体制作、发行和接受过程中,制定并创立有责任感的行动规则,以便参与媒体进程的职业团体、领域和个人能完成伦理学所要求的各种自身责任,并考虑自身对公众的责任。

English - Explanation:

Media ethics deals with the specific ethical principles and standards that apply to the production, distribution and reception of media and seeks to raise awareness of media ethics among the professionals, industries and individuals working in the media, taking into account of the responsibility of the audience.

媒体使用

English: media use, use of media, media consumption
Topic:

媒体使用方面上瘾了的

English: addicted to media, dependent on media
Topic:

媒体使用方面的瘾病

English: media addiction, media dependence
Topic:

媒体使用时间

English: screen time
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

父母设定的媒体使用时间限制,或父母与子女之间就媒体使用(手机、电脑、游戏机)协商达成的时间限制。

English - Explanation:

Screen time refers to the time limit agreed between parents and children regarding the use of media (smartphones, computers, gaming consoles, etc.).

媒体使用行为

English: media usage behaviour, media consumption behaviour, media usage habits, media consumption habits
Topic:

媒体使用规定

English: media usage agreement
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

父母与子女之间的规定,制定了使用个人电脑和智能手机的规则。

English - Explanation:

An agreement between parents and their children concerning the latters' use of a computer and/or smartphone.

媒体侦察兵

English: media scout
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

媒体侦察兵(也称作:媒体侦察员或媒体指导员)这项教育倡议,旨在培养青少年儿童的媒体能力。青少年经过训练,担任媒体侦察员或指导员,承担向同学或朋友传播媒体主题领域的相关信息。其目的是提高青少年儿童的媒体能力,促使他们能理性地、负责任地使用媒体。侦察员这个词(源自英文词 scout -探索、启发),其任务与童子军有类似之处。

English - Explanation:

The German term "Medienscout" (media scout) was coined in the context of an educational initiative to help young people develop media skills. Media scouts, also known as media mentors, are young people who are trained before assisting their peers and friends to navigate the world of media. The aim is to encourage children and adolescents to learn how to use media responsibly. The term "media scout" was deliberately chosen to reflect the link to the Scouting movement.

媒体停用时间

English: media downtime
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

不使用媒体的时间

English - Explanation:

媒体化

English: mediatisation of communication, mediatisation of communicative behaviour
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

传播研究中的媒体化,描述了媒体对社会各个领域的影响,涉及到媒体变化与社会变革和日常生活变化之间关系。

English - Explanation:

The mediatisation of communication is a theory in communication and media science that explores the increasing penetration of our culture and our everyday lives by various forms of media communication and the resulting changes. At its core, the theory seeks to explain the reciprocal relationship between changes in the way we communicate (e.g., due to new media) and cultural developments.

媒体教育学

English: media education
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

媒体教育学,涉及到在教育过程中对媒体的使用、理解接受。

English - Explanation:

Media education is concerned with the use and reception of media in educational settings.

媒体教育学的

English: media-education (adj.), relating to media education
Topic:

媒体法律

English: media law, media legislation
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

媒体法律,管理与各种出版物打交道的情况,特别是通过所谓的新媒体里的出版物,也就是与互联网、计算机和电子数据(载体)有关的一切。

English - Explanation:

Media law pertains to the use of publications of all kinds, especially when disseminated through what are known as new media (Internet, computers, digital media).

容易语言

English: simplified language
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

容易语言,是受到特别规则进行规范的简单语言。该规则由2006年成立的容易语言网络组织发布。它包括语言规则、拼写规则,并给出印刷出版及媒体用语方面的建议。通过使用容易语言,那些受各种原因影响而德语水平有限的人,能更容易理解文本。

English - Explanation:

Simplified language (German: "Leichte Sprache") is a form of plain language that adheres to a set of rules published by the German organisation "Netzwerk Leichte Sprache" (established 2006). The rules govern phrasing, spelling, and recommended fonts and media. Simplified language is designed to assist individuals who, for various reasons, have difficulty in understanding German, to comprehend German texts.

开放内容

English: open content
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

网络上能找到许多内容,这些内容的原创者允许人们无需询问,就可以使用这些内容。这类内容被称为开放内容,包括音乐、文本、照片甚至整部电影。内容获得了免费许可,意思就是,一般情况下,其原创者免费提供这些内容供人使用。人们常常可以根据CC标志(知识共享授权),认出某个音乐作品或照片是否具有这一授权。(参见词条:创作共用授权条款)

English - Explanation:

There is a lot of content online that has been released by the creators for further use without having to obtain permission beforehand. Such content - which can be music, articles, images, or even entire films - is referred to as "open content". Such content is said to be under an "open licence" and is often recognisable as such by the "CC" logo (cf. Creative Commons [CC] licence).

开放政府

English: open government
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

开放政府,指的是要提高政府的透明度和问责制。其中包括让公民有计划参与政治决策及实施过程。现代通信技术在这里发挥着特殊作用。

English - Explanation:

Open government stands for extended government transparency and accountability. It enables citizens to influence and participate in political decision-making and in implementing said decisions. Modern communications technologies play a major role in this context.

开放数据

English: open data
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

开放数据,是任何人都可以不受任何限制使用、加工和重新使用的数据。要求数据开放,是因为人们设想,通过可自由使用的数据,能实现更多的透明度和合作。人们提供免费许可,以确保内容可重复使用。

English - Explanation:

Open data is data that is free to use, disseminate and amended to create new content by anyone. The call for open data is based on the assumption that freely usable data creates more transparency and opportunities for collaboration. Free (or open) licenses are used to ensure that open data is reusable.

开放空间(鱼缸)式讨论

English: fishbowl discussion, fishbowl conversation
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

开放空间(鱼缸)式讨论(也是内圈/外圈方法),是一种大型讨论方法。这种方法的名称,来自于其座位安排:它类似于一个鱼缸,参与者围着圆圈坐。该方法中,内圈中的一小组参与者(在“金鱼玻璃缸”中)讨论该主题,而外圈中的其他参与者观察讨论。有各种形式,可以让外圈的参与者参与讨论。 资料来源:https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fishbowl_(Discussionsmethode)

English - Explanation:

The fishbowl format is a form of dialogue that is suitable for large groups. The term references the seating arrangement: a small number of participants is seated in a small circle (the fishbowl), with the remaining participants arranged in a circle outside, from where they observe the discussion. Various options are available to them should they wish to join in the discussion.

开源;开放源代码

English: open source
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

开源,意味着“开放源头”。 开源计算机程序可以免费使用,而且由于开放源代码,理论上每个人可以对此进行修改并让其适合自己的需要,例如:Linux、火狐、维基百科、OpenStreetMap。

English - Explanation:

Open-source software programmes may be used free of charge and, since the source code is freely accessible, can theoretically be redesigned and adapted to fit one's own needs. Examples of open-source programmes include Linux, Mozilla Firefox, Wikipedia, and OpenStreetMap.

微博

English: microblog
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

微博,例如推特,是一种社交网络,可以发布类似博客的文章。微博与博客最大的区别在于:微博的最大字符数限制为140个字符。因此,在网上编写微博,可以与短信编写进行比较。

English - Explanation:

A microblog, such as Twitter, is a social network that allows users to post blog entries. The primary difference between a blog and a microblog is the length of the post. Microblog posts are limited to 140 characters and can hence be considered the Internet variation of a text message.

志愿型自我监控机构

English: voluntary self-regulation, voluntary self-control, voluntary self-monitoring
Topic:

快闪族

English: flashmob, flash mob
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

快闪族,指的是数量较多的一群人,事先通过现代沟通工具,商定在公共空间,进行一次快速活动。

English - Explanation:

A flash mob is a larger group of people who assemble apparently spontaneously in a public space, having agreed to do so in advance using modern communication channels.

手机上瘾症

English: mobile phone addiction, smartphone addiction
Topic:

扫盲教育

English: literacy education, teaching literacy
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

扫盲教育所涉及的教育领域,旨在促进阅读、写作技能,并提高处理交际、符号系统方面的能力。

English - Explanation:

Literacy education is a field of education that is concerned with learners' reading and writing abilities, and the use of communication systems and those that require decoding skills.

指示, 把某书(或电影等)列为禁书

English: indexing, blacklisting
Topic:

数位素养

English: e-literacy
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

也被称为:电子素养。指的是具有使用电子设备的能力(例如电脑、平板电脑或者智能手机)。

English - Explanation:

E-literacy (also known as digital literacy) denotes the ability to use digital devices (e.g., computers, tablets or smartphones) as intended.

数字化学习, 电子化学习, 在线学习

English: electronic learning, e-learning, online learning
Topic:

数字原生代

English: digital natives
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

数字原生代,指的是出生于1980年以后的人,他们接触数字媒体、伴随数字媒体长大、并相应地具有使用数字媒体的能力。满足所有这些条件的人,才能被称为数字原生代。

English - Explanation:

Digital natives is the term used to denote the generation born after 1980. This generation has access to digital media, grew up using these media, and has the ability to use them correctly. Individuals who meet all three of these criteria are referred to as digital natives.

数字工具

English: digital tools
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

也被称为数码工具。这个概念涵盖电脑或笔记本电脑的各种应用(也被称为程序、服务),以及智能手机、平板电脑里的各种应用程序。这些应用程序能帮助完成特定的活动。通过数字工具,人们可以改变其(职业)日常生活,例如可以使用应用程序来组织工作进程,比如计划、执行、复习各种活动,也可以用来学习。

English - Explanation:

Digital tools are applications, also known as programs or software, that are installed on computers, laptops, or smartphones and tablets (in which case they are known as apps) that help users to execute certain tasks and manage their workflows and everydays lives. They can be used to design learning materials, evaluate learners' progress, and digest content, for instance.

数字权利

English: digital rights
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

人权在数字世界的体现,例如有权自由上网,有权在网上自由发表言论,有权在网上拥有个人空间。

English - Explanation:

Digital rights are human rights in a digital context. They include, e.g., free access to the Internet, the right to express one's opinion freely online, and the right to privacy on the Internet.

数字游戏;电脑游戏

English: digital games
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

也被称为:电玩游戏,网络游戏,视频游戏。

English - Explanation:

数字空间的压力

English: digital stress
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

例如数字空间的霸凌

English - Explanation:

数字革命

English: digital revolution
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

数字革命,这个概念用来描述数字技术和电脑所引发的变革,这一变革发生于20世纪,几乎改变了所有的生活领域,让人进入数字世界,就如同200年以前的工业革命将世界引入工业社会一样。因此人们也将其称为第三次工业革命,或者从技术角度将其称为微电子革命。

English - Explanation:

The Digital Revolution is a term used to denote the changes brought by digital technologies and computers in the late 20th century to almost all areas of life. It is also referred to as the Third Industrial Revolution in an analogy to the first industrial revolution that took place 200 years prior. In technical contexts, another term used is "micro-electronic revolution".

数字鸿沟

English: digital divide, digital gap
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

也被称为数字落差,指的是拥有信息及交流技术(例如网络)的人,与缺少信息及交流技术的人之间的鸿沟,产生鸿沟的原因例如包括缺少技术条件、知识、合适的服务项目。

English - Explanation:

The digital divide refers to the gap between individuals who have access to modern ICT and the Internet and those who do not, due to, e.g., lack of technical infrastructure, knowledge, or service providers.

数据保护专员

English: data privacy officer, data protection officer
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

所有的企业或组织需要数据保护专员,这些企业、组织里,与人相关的数据受到自动化处理。数据保护专员就数据保护方面事宜,为企业、机构提供咨询,为员工提供培训,让其关注数据安全问题,并监控该机构的数据保护问题。

English - Explanation:

All companies and organisations that engage in the automated processing of personal data must appoint a data privacy officer who is responsible for advising the company or organisation on matters relating to data privacy, trains and raises awareness among staff, and ensures compliance with data privacy regulations.

数据保护申明

English: data protection declaration, privacy statement
Topic:

数据八爪章鱼;数据水蛭

English: data leech
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

国家或私人机构违规侵害数据保护权益。70年代起,德国引入数据保护。当时人们首先想到的是国家及其增长的对数据的饥渴。90年代起,数据保护者也注意到私人企业对数据的兴趣,特别是伴随着21世纪前十年中期阶段社交媒体的胜利。

English - Explanation:

In German parlance, "Datenkraken" (data leeches) is used to denote both government-run and private-sector organisations that circumvent data privacy rules. Data privacy was first established in Germany in the 1970s, initially with the government's growing hunger for data in mind. In the 1990s, private-sector companies, in particular, attracted the attention of data privacy experts. Data privacy became a major concern at the latest during the rise of social media in the mid-00s.

数码技能

English: e-skills, electronic skills
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

数码方面的能力,特定职业群体或企业、机构需要的能力,例如编程知识、精通软件使用技巧。

English - Explanation:

Digital skills required for certain professions or for working in certain companies or organisations, including programming or coding skills, software skills, etc.

智令营

English: digicamp
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

也被称为数据夏令营。通过举行智令营,让青少年对数字技术感兴趣,并让他们更了解使用数字技术会带来什么问题。新媒体带来了许多挑战。年轻人例如通过“智令营”这类活动形式,学习并共同掌握如何正确应对这些挑战。

English - Explanation:

A digicamp is designed to get young people interested in digital technologies, but also to make them aware of the pitfalls of using them. New media are challenging in many ways. Digicamps are one way for young people to learn how to use them properly.

智能城市

English: smart cities
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

该概念描述的方案能通过使用现代信息和通信技术,使城市具有可持续性、有利于环境,并具备社会包容性。

English - Explanation:

Smart cities refers to concepts that help to make cities more sustainable, environmentally friendly and socially inclusive through the use of modern information and communication technologies.

智能青少年工作

English: smart youth work
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

“智能青少年工作”,指的是青少年工作中的创新发展,尤其是青少年工作开展时依赖数据实践,即主动使用数字媒体和技术及其包含的内容。智能青少年工作,目标应该是通过新技术和创新方法覆盖到年轻人,同时提高他们的数字技能。智能青少年工作,也具有积极塑造数字社会的潜力,并通过其活动促进年轻人的参与。

English - Explanation:

Smart youth work refers to an innovative approach in youth work that is largely digital in nature, meaning that it involves the active use of digital media and technologies, or centres on these technologies. Smart youth work serves to reach out to young people by means of new technologies and innovative methods, while teaching them digital skills at the same time. It is also potentially capable of helping to actively shape the digital society and, through its activities, encourage young people to get involved.

有影响力的人

English: influencer
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

有影响力的人(来自英语词influence:影响),指的是由于这类人作为重要存在,名气颇高,在一个或多个社交网络中,可以考虑让他们做广告及市场推介。

English - Explanation:

An influencer is an individual who, owing to their strong presence and/or prominence in one or several social networks, can be asked to endorse a certain product, service or brand.

机器人学

English: robotics
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

也称为:机器人技术。

English - Explanation:

欧盟数据保护专业委员会(EDSA)

English: European Data Protection Board (EDSA)
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

欧盟数据保护专业委员会(EDSA),是欧盟的独立机构,致力于在整个欧盟范围内统一使用数据保护条例,并促进欧盟各数据保护部门之间的合作。

English - Explanation:

The European Data Protection Board (EDPB) is an independent European body, which contributes to the consistent application of data protection rules throughout the European Union, and promotes cooperation between the EU’s data protection authorities.

欧盟数据保护条例

English: EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)
Topic:

欧盟电子隐私条例

English: ePrivacy Regulation (of the European Union)
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

欧盟希望使用电子隐私条例(正式名称为:欧盟议会及欧盟委员会个人隐私和电子通信个人数据保护条例),来加强公民在网上的隐私权,并对数据保护进行更加深入的规范。

English - Explanation:

The European Commission's Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications (ePrivacy Regulation for short) aims at strengthening citizens' privacy online and creating a stronger regulatory framework for data privacy.

泛欧洲游戏信息组织

English: PEGI
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

PEGI(泛欧洲游戏信息组织),是第一个欧洲范围内对电脑游戏年龄评级的系统。

English - Explanation:

PEGI (Pan European Game Information) is the first Europe-wide rating and age recommendation system for video game content.

点赞

English: to like
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

社交网络的用户使用点赞(从英语词“喜欢”而来)功能,表示他们喜欢或支持某些东西(所谓的“点赞”)。在许多社交网站中,访问者(要么仅是注册用户,但有时是所有访问者)都有机会通过某些按钮(例如脸书上的“赞”按钮)“点赞”其他人的帖子。点赞的方式在各网站有所不同,有些网站仅能发表正面评价(例如在脸书上),有些网站既能给予正面评价,也能发表负面评价(例如在YouTube上表示”不喜欢“),或者有些网站可以打分,例如可以从一星到五星进行打分。

English - Explanation:

Liking is the act of expressing one's approval of or support for something seen on a social network. There are many social websites that allow users (occasionally also non-registered users) to click on an icon, such as the Facebook "like button", to "like" other users' posts. Various options exist: for instance, simple positive votes (e.g., Facebook), stronger "likes", "dislikes" (e.g., YouTube), and various gradations in between (e.g., between 1 and 5 stars).

物联网

English: Internet of Things
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

物联网(缩写:IdD)(英语词为Internet of Things, 缩写: IoT),是信息社会全球基础设施技术的统称,能让物理物体和虚拟物体链接以来,通过信息和交流技术,让二者协作。

English - Explanation:

Also known under its acronym IoT, the Internet of Things is an umbrella term for technologies that form a global infrastructure for the information society, enabling physical and virtual "things" or elements to connect thanks to information and communication technologies.

电子化学习

English: e-learning
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

电子化学习,指的是通过使用电子媒体(例如通过电脑使用电影、虚拟教室、网络研讨会、词汇练习软件的方式)不受地点限制的教学与学习。

English - Explanation:

E-learning, or electronic learning, denotes teaching and learning that can take place anywhere using electronic media, e.g., films, virtual classrooms, webinars and computers.

电子参与

English: e-participation
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

电子参与是指公民通过互联网参与政治过程(网上参与方法),例如网上的讨论平台/公民对话、基于网络的公民调查,在线请愿。

English - Explanation:

E-participation denotes the participation by citizens in political processes online (online participation), but also discussion portals, citizens' dialogues, online citizen surveys, online petitions and so forth.

电子政务

English: e-governance
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

电子政务,指的是在政府部门及管理部门使用电子技术,以让决策过程及程序变得更加高效,并且让国家、民间社会和私人经济行动力量之间的相互关系变得更加透明、合乎需求,并更加促进参与。

English - Explanation:

E-governance means the use of digital technologies in government and administration. It serves to bring greater transparency and efficiency to decision-making and to interactions between governmental, civil-society and private-sector stakeholders, to serve their needs better, and make the process more participatory.

电子政务, 电子化政府管理

English: e-government, eGovernment
Topic:

电子政府

English: e-government
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

电子政府这个词(德语为:E-Regierung),从广义上讲,指的是:在国家级及地方级的国家机关以及其他政府机构内部以及机构之间,以及这些国家机关、公民和企业之间,通过使用信息及交流技术,简便并实施信息、交流及互动关系。

English - Explanation:

E-government in a wider sense denotes the simplification and implementation of processes to ensure information, communication and interaction between and within governmental institutions, local authorities and other public-sector stakeholders with citizens and companies through the use of ICT.

电子民主

English: e-democracy
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

电子民主,指的是在立法机构、公民、企业和其他国家机关中,通过使用信息及交流技术,简便并实施信息、交流及互动关系。这里也涉及到政府部门人员任命之前的意愿及意见形成,或者涉及到选举的情况。只要网络选举还没有在全国得到普及,使用电子民主,是自愿基础上进行的。电子民主使用的媒体,甚至能将无法上网的公民排除在外。电子民主是电子政务的一部分。

English - Explanation:

E-democracy denote the simplification and implementation of processes to ensure information, communication and interaction between and within legislative institutions, citizens, companies and public-sector institutions through the use of ICT. However, it also refers to the process of influencing decision-making and opinions. The use of e-democracy tools will remain voluntary until online elections are made possible nationwide. The tools used for e-democracy are in fact unavailable to some user groups, such as citizens who do not have access to the internet. E-democracy tools are part of what is known as e-government.

电脑游戏上瘾

English: computer game addiction, video game addiction
Topic:

痛恨者

English: hater
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

痛恨者不喜欢某些人,压迫甚至憎恨这些人,尤其在网络上会公然这么做。

English - Explanation:

A hater is someone who cannot begrudge someone their good fortune, denigrates or even hates them, and communicates this publicly, often online.

社交媒体

English: social media
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

社交媒体这种数字媒体和方法,能让用户在网上彼此建立网络关系,也就是彼此交流信息,个人单独、或在特定社区中、或在社会中,公开地创建和传播媒体内容。

English - Explanation:

Social media are digital media enabling users to interact online and create and share content either among individuals or closed groups.

社交机器人

English: social bot
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

例如推特机器人。“Bot”是机器人英语“机器人”的缩写,指的是能自动完成某些任务的计算机程序。社交网络中的意见机器人,可以使用虚假账户,伪造人类身份。

English - Explanation:

For instance, a Twitter bot. A "bot", an abbreviation of "robot", is a computer program that is programmed to fulfil certain tasks. Opinion bots, often attached to a fake social media account, often pretend to be human.

移动学习

English: m-learining, mobile learning
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

移动学习,是指使用移动媒体进行学习,例如使用智能手机应用学习。

English - Explanation:

M-learning refers to learning using mobile media such as smartphone apps.

网络中的不健康内容

English: problematic online content
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

网络中的不健康内容例如包括:假新闻、色情、色情短信、右翼极端主义,或美化饮食障碍问题。这类对儿童和青少年而言内容有问题的网页,数量非常大。互联网上为儿童提供保护,是一项极其困难的任务。因为许多网站使用国外的服务器上,所以部分情况下,官方无法控制。因此,更重要的是对父母和教育工作者提供教育,让他们了解潜伏在网络中的许多危险,并帮助处于成长期的青少年安全上网。

English - Explanation:

Such content can include fake news, pornography, sexting, right-wing extremism and sites glorifying eating disorders. The number of websites with content unsuitable for children and adolescents is enormous, and protecting young people from it is exceptionally difficult. The authorities often find it impossible to prevent access since many sites are hosted on servers outside of Germany. It is hence all the more important that parents and education professionals teach children about the many dangers lurking online and how to use the Internet safely.

网络中的仇恨情绪

English: online hate, online hate speech
Topic:

网络中的骚扰、诱奸儿童

English: grooming
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

指的是通过互联网中有针对性的攀谈(德语中的意思是通过网络来做准备),与他人建立联系,目标是为了实现性接触而铺平道路。描述的是网络里特殊形式的性骚扰。这个词的英语概念,包含的对象既是成年人,也有未成年人,而这个概念进入德语后,仅指未成年人(青少年儿童)。首先建立一种看似无恶意的信任关系,然后对未成年人实施犯罪行为,例如制造儿童淫秽录像,或强奸他们。英语词Grooming(刷洗、梳洗、准备)指的是,首先取悦可能的受害者,并且(或者)给他们礼物,以获得其信任。

English - Explanation:

Grooming, in an online context, is the process by which an individual befriends other individuals online with the aim of establishing sexual contact. In other words, it can also be understood as a online form of sexual harassment. The English term is used to mean contact with individuals of legal age as well as minors, yet the German equivalent term ("Cyber-Grooming") has come to be understood as pertaining only to minors (children and adolescents). Perpetrators (groomers) start by gaining the trust of their targets before moving on to committing criminal acts, such as obtaining pornographic images involving children or engaging in child sexual abuse. The term "grooming" itself goes back to the original meaning of the word, namely "preparing something for a specific purpose". In this context, this is done e.g. by flattering the intended victim or giving them gifts in order to gain their trust.

网络中立性

English: net neutrality
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

网络中立性,指的是互联网数据传输中做到平等对待,使用数据网络时做到非歧视性访问。

English - Explanation:

Net neutrality is the principle that all data on the Internet be transmitted equally, without discrimination when it comes to accessing the Internet.

网络使用驾照

English: Internet safety quiz, online safety quiz
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

通常以问答形式进行测验,检测儿童或青少年在互联网上的安全行为。

English - Explanation:

网络安全

English: cybersecurity
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

也被称为:互联网安全。

English - Explanation:

网络执法法

English: Act to Improve Enforcement of the Law in Social Networks
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

“改善社交网络执法法(也称为网络执法法案-NetzDG)”,旨在让网络平台(在被指明内容违法之后)24小时内清除违法内容。如案例情况不太明确,可以获得七天的时间。 由于该法律针对的是拥有超过200万用户的服务供应商,因此很快就被俗称为“脸书法”。然而,具体而言,许多具有发布和评论功能的网络服务都受到影响,特别是推特、YouTube、Instagram、Pinterest,谷歌+,或者脸书。相应的,媒体有时将其称为“仇恨言论法”。

English - Explanation:

The German Act to Improve Enforcement of the Law in Social Networks (also known as the Network Enforcement Act) aims to force telemedia service providers to remove unlawful content within 24 hours of having been notified of its existence. In less clear-cut cases, the deadline is seven days. Since the Act is aimed at providers with more than two million users, it quickly became known in common parlance as the "Facebook act", although in practice it also pertains to a large number of providers offering posting and commenting functions such as Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, Pinterest, Google+. German-speaking media also occasionally refer to it as the "hate speech act".

网络攻击

English: cyber attack
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

也叫做互联网攻击。指的是针对较大型的、对特殊基础设施而言重要的互联网络,从外部进行有目标性的袭击。

English - Explanation:

A cyber attack is a targeted attack on major computing network that are critical to the computing infrastructure.

网络政策

English: digital policy
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

网络政策(也称为数字政策),描述了围绕网络文化、媒体政策和媒体法问题的政治领域。

English - Explanation:

Digital policy is a policy field that centres around the cultural, media and legal issues surrounding the Internet.

网络研讨会

English: webinar
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

网络研讨会,或网络讨论会,是通过万维网(因特网)而举办的研讨会。

English - Explanation:

A webinar is a seminar held online.

网络社交游戏

English: social network gaming, social network games
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

社交网络游戏,例如包括脸书或MySpace等社交网站上提供的FarmVille,Mafia Wars这样游戏。其成功原因在于:社交互动、相互竞争提高等级水平,以及游戏的简单性。 游戏本身是免费的,但是为了在游戏中进步更快,可以随时用“真钱”购买各种虚拟物品或高级账户。

English - Explanation:

Social network games such as FarmVille, Mafia Wars etc. are played on social networks such as Facebook or MySpace. They are successful because they encourage social interaction, create a sense of competition among users, and are easy to play. The games themselves are free to play, but players can spend "real" money to purchase a variety of virtual assets or open a premium account so they can score higher.

网络空间

English: cyberspace
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

网络空间,指的是非真实存在的世界,只能通过电脑虚拟进入。狭义上讲,网络空间指的是电脑创造的三维世界,也就是虚拟现实,人类,也就是网民使用特殊硬件的情况下,可以进入这种虚拟现实。广义上讲,互联网世界就可以被称为网络空间。

English - Explanation:

Cyberspace is a virtual (that is, not real) world that can only be accessed virtually using a computer. In the narrow sense, the term denotes a computer-generated, three-dimensional world, known as "virtual reality", that can be accessed by individuals, known as cybernauts, using special equipment. In the wider sense, "cyberspace" is used to mean the Internet at large.

网络管理

English: Internet governance
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

制定和应用互联网设计、使用方面的共同原则和规则,例如通过网络中立性,确保互联网公司之间的公平竞争(参见词条:互联网自由)。

English - Explanation:

Internet governance is the development and application of shared principles and rules to the evolution and use of the Internet, for instance, to safeguard fair competition between Internet companies through net neutrality (cf. free Internet).

网络霸凌

English: online bullying, cyber bullying
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

网络霸凌,网络欺凌或互联网欺凌,指的是使用现代交流工具,对他人进行有针对性的侮辱、辱骂或暴露他人。实施霸凌的人主要是学生,例如通过短信、电子邮件或聊天的方式出现。受害者主要是同学、女孩和教师。

English - Explanation:

Online bullying refers to the spread of targeted insults or abuse against an individual, or the act of embarrassing others using modern communication tools. It is often perpetrated by school students using e.g., text messenging, e-mails or chat clients. The victims are often fellow students, girls and teachers.

网络骗局

English: internet scam
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

狡诈的网络服务供应商提供据说是免费的服务,例如智商测试、获得所谓遗产或免费试用商品的邮件,骗取用户的钱财。

English - Explanation:

Whether knowledge quizzes, e-mails promising major inheritances or product samples, the Internet is where crafty scammers try to con users into handing over their cash by tempting them with supposedly free offers.

美化饮食障碍问题

English: glorification of eating disorders
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

该问题被视为目前互联网上颇成问题的发展状况。人们通过各种互联网内容,将饮食障碍问题美化成一种生活方式,并且将其无害化称为支持厌食(Pro-Ana)和支持暴食(Pro-Mia)。 互联网常常就此配上芭蕾舞演员、仙女,天使或蝴蝶的图像。这些图像代表身体上的完美、轻盈和优雅。这类内容的制作者和支持者通常是年轻女性。

English - Explanation:

A problematic development is currently taking place online, where eating disorders are glorified as lifestyle choices and referred to using trivialising terms, such as "pro-ana" (pro-anorexia) and "pro-mia" (pro-bulimia). Many websites show pictures of ballet dancers, fairies, angels or butterflies, representing physical perfection, weightlessness and grace. The authors and followers of this online content tend to be young women.

联邦危害青少年媒体审查署

English: Federal Review Board for Media Harmful to Minors
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

缩写:BPjM。联邦危害青少年媒体审查署,负责检查危害青少年的各类媒体(载具媒体及电子媒体)信息。其法律基础为青少年保护法(JuSchG)。

English - Explanation:

The Federal Review Board for Media Harmful to Minors has the mission to protect children and adolescents from media contents harmful to minors. It does so by blacklisting such media, a process referred to as "indexing" (Indizierung).

自由讨论营

English: bar camp, BarCamp
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

自由讨论营,为开放性讨论会,提供开放性研讨会。在开始举行讨论营的时候,人们就自己制定其内容、流程,并继续自发制定研讨会的进程。该讨论营能实现内容交流、促进讨论,部分情况下,讨论会结束时,就已经能得出具体结论。所有成员没有等级区分,一律平等对待。

English - Explanation:

A bar camp is an open meeting with open workshops, the content and structure of which are decided upon beforehand by the participants themselves and which are subject to change during the event. Bar camps are an opportunity for exchange and debate on a certain topic, yet may also lead to outcomes before the event has even ended. All participants are considered equal; there are no hierarchies. (Also: unconference)

自身肖像权

English: right of publicity
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

在德国,自身肖像权是属于一个人的人格权。这意味着每个人可以自己决定是否发布自己的照片或其他形式的自身图片。

English - Explanation:

The right of publicity refers to the right to keep one's image and likeness from being commercially exploited without permission or contractual compensation.

色情短信

English: sexting
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

色情短信,是由“色情”和“发短信”组成的词组,描述了通过计算机或智能手机发送和接收自制的、大尺度的讯息。科学界已经引入“色情短信”一词,但正如研究所表明的那样,这个词并不为年轻人所知。青少年(以及成年人)更倾向于将这种情形描述为发送“性感录影/自拍/照片/拍照”或“裸体”。

English - Explanation:

The term "sexting", a portmanteau combining the words "sex" and "texting", describes the sending and receiving of self-produced, explicit images via a computer or smartphone. Although the term is established among researchers, it is not commonly used by adolescents, as studies have shown. Young people (and adults) are more likely to use terms referring to the act itself, such as "sending sexy photos/selfies/pics/nudes".

虚假新闻

English: fake news
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

虚假新闻,是故意散播的虚假报道。青少年尤其常常使用社交媒体或博客,了解当前事件的报道。而他们这样就会读到操纵性的新闻网页里刊登的虚假新闻,特别容易受骗。人们几乎无法立刻辨认出这些是虚假新闻,新闻被套上严肃报道的外套,有系统性地传播尤其是针对外国人和难民的情绪,并吸引人进行右翼活动。

English - Explanation:

Fake news is a type of deliberate misinformation. Young people, in particular, customarily use social networks or blogs as news sources, which makes them especially vulnerable to misinformation spread by manipulative news sites that are difficult to spot for what they are. On the surface, these resources seem to provide reliable and neutral information, however they systematically spread xenophobic and/or right-wing content that is often aimed squarely against foreigners and refugees.

被遗忘权

English: right to be forgotten
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

如果原始存储目的不再存在时,必须删除数据。被遗忘权,确保个人相关电子数据,不会永久被使用。有时,被遗忘权利被缩写并误写为“被遗忘的权利”。由于这里涉及到电子存储数据的权利,人们也将其称为“数字橡皮擦”。

English - Explanation:

Data that is no longer needed to fulfil the purpose for which it was originally stored must be deleted. The right to be forgotten serves to ensure that digital personal data is not available infinitely.

视频平台

English: video platform
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

例如YouTube(油管)。

English - Explanation:

e.g., YouTube

路人大战;狗屎风暴

English: shitstorm
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

路人大战一词,描述了一种伤害性的网络行为,一种自我放纵的愤怒浪潮,它脱离了辩论之类的客观性本质,而是从情感上宣泄,并转移到更个人的层面,甚至造成最为恶劣的伤害。该词主要应用在博客帖子或评论、推特消息或脸书消息方面。

English - Explanation:

The term "shitstorm" describes a type of insulting or denigrating online behaviour. It refers to the uncontrollable and highly emotional form of public backlash that is largely unrelated to the actual issue at hand and becomes increasingly personal and injurious. A shitstorm can be triggered by a blog post, in the comments section of a blog, or on Twitter or Facebook, for instance.

适合青少年的语言

English: youth-appropriate language
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

适合青少年的语言,指的是并不是成年人应该模仿年轻人,而是要以易于理解的方式进行表述,解释专业术语,明确表达句子,避免名词化,并使用积极形式的表达。语言也应该与使用者相匹配。重要的是,青少年能对此加以严肃对待,并感到自己受到认真对待。欧盟数据保护条例甚至在第12条中确定,与年轻人有关的信息,青少年儿童有权以"精确、透明、易懂且简单的方式获得,以简明、清晰的语言进行传播“。

English - Explanation:

Youth-appropriate language does not mean that adults should imitate the way young people speak; rather, it involves using clear language, explaining technical terms, structuring one's sentences clearly, avoiding noun-heavy constructions, and preferring the active versus the passive voice. In addition, the language used should be appropriate to the person using it, so that young people take that person seriously and by extension, feel taken seriously themselves. Article 12 of the EU General Data Protection Regulation even stipulates that information addressed specifically to a child should be presented in "concise, transparent, intelligible and easily accessible form, using clear and plain language".

通过现场直播举办会议

English: livestream
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

现场直播(德语:实时传输),指的是提供现场直播服务(视频或音频),例如,通过实时直播而召开的会议。

English - Explanation:

A livestream is an event, e.g., a conference, that is broadcast in real time online, either with video or just audio.

错失恐惧症

English: FOMO
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

错失恐惧症(FOMO)指的是:尤其害怕在社交网络上错过什么,以及(或者)错误度过自己的时间。

English - Explanation:

FOMO, or "fear of missing out", is the fear - particularly pervasive in social media - of not being involved in a certain experience, or of not spending one's time in a meaningful way.

青少年保护过滤器

English: web content filter, parental control software
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

青少年保护过滤器,指的是根据积极或消极列表,按照设置好的儿童年龄组,对网站进行筛选,以此来保护青少年儿童,避免看到不合适的内容。

English - Explanation:

Web content filters are software programmes that categorise websites into white- or blacklists depending on their suitability for certain age groups. They can be used to protect children and adolescents from unsuitable content online.

青少年媒体保护国家协议

English: Interstate Treaty on the Protection of Minors in the Media
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

德国各联邦州之间签订的国家协议,协议包括了青少年媒体保护法规的具体条文规定,确保青少年儿童无法打开某些特定的媒体内容,或者对内容按年龄分级。

English - Explanation:

This Interstate Treaty is binding upon all German federal states and comprises provisions on the protection of minors from harmful media. Specifically, it serves to prevent children and adolescents from accessing certain media either entirely, giving them access only to content that is age-appropriate.

黑客攻击

English: hacker attack, cybersecurity attack, cyber attack, cyberattack
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

来自英语的黑客这个词的意思是:渗透到某个东西里。计算机科学中,黑客指的是那些喜欢创建或更改软件、硬件的人。该概念在犯罪情况下,指的是有人为了自己的目的,也常常是出于犯罪目的,在未曾获得许可的情况下就使用漏洞,入侵他人电脑系统。“真正的”黑客攻击指的是:入侵电脑或计算机网络。资料来源:https://wirtschaftslexikon.gabler.de/definition/hacker-53395。

English - Explanation:

In this context, "hacking" is the act of entering a system. In computing, a hacker is someone who is skilled at developing or reprogramming soft- and hardware. This can also be done for malicious purposes - for instance, using security gaps to break into computer systems and steal data - in which case hackers may also be referred to as "crackers".

(德国联邦政府)数字纲领

English: Digital Agenda (of the German Federal Government)
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

联邦政府的一个策略,让人们能应对数字化挑战,并且在德国、欧洲及国际范围内构建社会数字转型。

English - Explanation:

The German Federal Government's Digital Agenda is its response to the challenges of digitalisation and helps shape digital change in society in Germany, Europe and the world at large.

(网络中的)攻击

English: bashing
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

这一概念描述了网络中一种带来伤害的行为方式,其中包括骂战,骂战的范围包括从强烈侮辱直至完全失控。

English - Explanation:

The term "bashing" denotes a type of abusive online behaviour, including severe denigrating or insulting behaviour and loss of control.

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