LGBT群体

English: LGBT
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

该缩写包括男女同性恋者、双性恋者与跨性别恋者。

English - Explanation:

LGBT is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.

为受害者提供的咨询

English: counselling for victims, victim counselling
Topic:

仇恨言论

English: hate speech
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

这个词在德语中也使用英语词Hate Speech来代替。仇恨言论,指的是对他人加以贬低、攻击,或使得他们受到仇恨或暴力攻击。常常是种族主义、反犹太主义、或者性别主义方面的评论,这些评论以特定的人或群体为目标。因此,仇恨言论,是针对特定群体的敌意现象的上层概念,或者在网络以及社交媒体空间里对群体进行煽动现象的通称。

English - Explanation:

Hate speech is used to refer to utterances that denigrate or attack individuals or incite them to engage in hate and violence. Hate speech can also mean racist, anti-Semitic or sexist utterances that are aimed at certain individuals or groups. In other words, hate speech is the umbrella term for a phenomenon known as group-focused enmity, or sedition, online and/or on social media.

代内公平

English: intragenerational equity, intragenerational justice
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

代内公平,旨在实现目前生活的人之间的公平,也就是工业国家和发展国家生活的人之间的公平,是可持续发展这一概念的建设性标志。

English - Explanation:

Intragenerational equity is concerned with equity between people of the same generation, i.e., in particular between those living in industrialised and those in developing countries. It is a central ethical principle behind the idea of sustainable development.

代际公平

English: intergenerational equity, intergenerational justice
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

代际公平,旨在实现目前和未来的几代人之间的公平,是可持续发展这一概念的建设性标志。

English - Explanation:

Intergenerational equity refers to the idea of justice between present and future generations. It is a central ethical principle behind the idea of sustainable development.

促进民主, 有利于民主发展

English: democracy promotion, promotion of democracy, democracy-building
Topic:

儿童卖淫现象, 儿童色情

English: child pornography
Topic:

儿童权利, 儿童权益

English: children’s rights
Topic:

公民勇气(例如承担社会责任)

English: moral courage
Topic:

公民参与

English: civic commitment, active citizenship, civic engagement, civic involvement
Topic:

公民参与, 公民责任心, 公民义务工作

English: civic commitment, active citizenship, civic engagement, civic involvement
Topic:

公民社会的

English: civic, related to society, of civil society, civil-society (adj.)
Topic:

公民自发组织, 公民自发行动

English: community action group
Topic:

参与, 加入, 参加

English: participation, involvement
Topic:

参与决定, 共同决定

English: codetermination, joint management
Topic:

反吉普赛人运动, 反吉普赛人主义, 排斥吉普赛人运动

English: antigypsyism, anti-gypsyism, anti-Gypsyism, antiziganism
Topic:

增权

English: empowerment
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

增权纲领,是社会工作领域的一个行动纲领。这个词的直接翻译是“自己授权”、“自己赋权”、“增加自治和自己拥有的权利”。增权的目标是让人们能找到自己的优点,加强自己的能力和天赋,并且释放资源,以此能帮助人们自决地构建其日常生活。

English - Explanation:

The concept of empowerment originates in social work. The term itself has connotions of "taking control", "taking action", "strengthening one's autonomy". Empowerment aims to encourage individuals to discover their strengths, talents and abilities so they can use these resources to manage their everyday lives and their futures.

处理(儿童等)侵害事件的专员

English: abuse commissioner
Topic:

好客文化, 欢迎文化

English: welcoming culture
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

好客文化,指的是一个社会对待移民的积极态度。该概念涵盖的范围包括国家性及民间社会性措施,这些措施促进积极态度的发展,并让移民感到自己受欢迎。

English - Explanation:

The German term "Willkommenskultur" (welcoming culture) refers to a welcoming attitude to immigrants. Semantically, the term also covers state and civil-society measures that generally promote a culture of welcome while reassuring immigrants that they are welcome in Germany.

对性别敏感的教育

English: gender-sensitive education, gender-responsive education
Topic:

对民主充满敌意的, 不利于民主的

English: anti-democratic
Topic:

对特定群体的人持有敌意

English: group-based hostility, intergroup conflict
Topic:

性侵害

English: sexual assault, sexual attack, sexual harassment
Topic:

性别歧视

English: sexism
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

性别歧视,指的是基于性别及其背后的意识形态和态度的歧视。性别歧视,尤其指的是妇女由于其性别所属,而受到歧视和压迫。因此,性别歧视是基于不平等的意识形态,尽管这种歧视和抗拒并不是针对少数人群体而进行的。

English - Explanation:

Sexism is a form of discrimination based on gender and in turn, on the ideologies and attitudes underlying that discrimination. In particular, the term refers to the disadvantage and oppression of women based on their gender. In other words, sexism is based on an ideology of inequality, even though it is not targeted specifically at a minority.

性方面施加的暴力

English: sexualised violence
Topic:

排外行为,敌视外国人

English: xenophobia, racism
Topic:

政治疲乏

English: political fatigue, political lethargy, voter fatigue
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

政治疲乏,也被称为政治疲倦或政治疲惫,指的是一个国家里公民所持的两种不同消极态度:1)一方面是对当前政治感到不满,对政治家和政党感到疲乏,2)另一方面,对政治制度和民主制度普遍感到不满,因此对政治或国家感到疲乏。

English - Explanation:

The term "political fatigue", also referred to as political lethargy or voter fatigue, describes two different types of negative attitude on the part of citizens:
1) general disenchantment with politicians and political parties, expressing dissatisfaction with current politics,
2) general disenchantment with politics and governments, expressing dissatisfaction with the political system and with democratic institutions.

暴力预防

English: prevention of violence, violence prevention
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

预先减少、阻止暴力,就是暴力预防的目标。重要的实施力量尤其是警察、司法机构、学校、青少年专业工作、青少年媒体保护。暴力预防的一个重点群体就是青少年儿童。问题领域包括心理和身体暴力。这两种情况下,青少年儿童既可能是受害者,也可能是施害者。网络霸凌现象这一例子就能清楚地显示这一点。

English - Explanation:

The aim of violence prevention is to reduce or even prevent violence before it happens. Major stakeholders in this regard include the police, the judiciary, schools, youth welfare organisations and organisations working to protect minors from harmful media. Physical and psychological violence are considered to be particularly problematic. Children and adolescents can be the target of both these types of violence and even be perpetrators themselves. (Cyber) bullying is a good example of this.

极右主义的青少年

English: right-wing extremist young person (pl.: people), young right-wing extremist
Topic:

法治国家

English: state under the rule of law, constitutional state, rule-of-law state
Topic:

注重性别敏感的教育

English: gender-sensitive education, gender-responsive education
Topic:

电子民主

English: e-democracy
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

电子民主,指的是在立法机构、公民、企业和其他国家机关中,通过使用信息及交流技术,简便并实施信息、交流及互动关系。这里也涉及到政府部门人员任命之前的意愿及意见形成,或者涉及到选举的情况。只要网络选举还没有在全国得到普及,使用电子民主,是自愿基础上进行的。电子民主使用的媒体,甚至能将无法上网的公民排除在外。电子民主是电子政务的一部分。

English - Explanation:

E-democracy denote the simplification and implementation of processes to ensure information, communication and interaction between and within legislative institutions, citizens, companies and public-sector institutions through the use of ICT. However, it also refers to the process of influencing decision-making and opinions. The use of e-democracy tools will remain voluntary until online elections are made possible nationwide. The tools used for e-democracy are in fact unavailable to some user groups, such as citizens who do not have access to the internet. E-democracy tools are part of what is known as e-government.

痛恨者

English: hater
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

痛恨者不喜欢某些人,压迫甚至憎恨这些人,尤其在网络上会公然这么做。

English - Explanation:

A hater is someone who cannot begrudge someone their good fortune, denigrates or even hates them, and communicates this publicly, often online.

监察处

English: ombudsman office, ombudsman agency
Topic:

社会可持续性

English: social sustainability
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

社会可持续性,旨在促进人道主义、自由和正义领域的社会凝聚力。与可持续性的另外两个领域(经济,生态)相比,在确保社会或经济的未来可行性方面,社会可持续性也同样重要。

English - Explanation:

Social sustainability seeks to achieve social cohesion in line with the principles of humanity, liberty and justice. It is equally as significant as the two other dimensions of sustainability (economic and ecological) in terms of ensuring the long-term viability of a society or economy.

福利, 公益

English: welfare
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

福利,指的是为困境中的人或者受到威胁的人提供支持,这样,这些人的基本需求和尊严能得到保障。

English - Explanation:

"Welfare" refers to assistance provided to persons in need or danger in order to meet their basic needs and maintain their dignity.

福利事业机构

English: non-statutory welfare work
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

自由型福利事业机构,指的是社会领域及医疗卫生领域的自由型机构。这些机构与公立型社会福利组织一起合作,并且很大程度上受到这些公立型组织的资助。

English - Explanation:

"Non-statutory welfare work" is used to refer to the work of non-statutory organisations providing social and health care services. They work in partnership with public social welfare providers and are largely funded through them.

福利联合会

English: welfare organisation, welfare association
Topic:

积极公民, 积极公民意识, 积极市民, 公民参与

English: active citizenship
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

男女公民在自愿基础上,而不仅仅是出于经济利益考虑,积极从事公益事业,实现共同目标。德语也使用英语概念“active citizenship”。德语将这个概念翻译成“积极公民”。另一种翻译可能性是“公民参与”(civic involvement)。

English - Explanation:

精神暴力, 心理暴力

English: psychological violence
Topic:

网络参与(政治决策进程等)

English: e-participation, eParticipation
Topic:

联合国儿童权利公约

English: UN Convention on the Rights of the Child
Topic:

联邦制, 联邦制构架

English: federalism
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

联邦制,是德意志联邦共和国的国家组织原则,1949年写入联邦基本法。德国联邦体系的特征是:德国联邦与州之间开展密切合作。德国各州通过联邦参议院,加入到法律制定过程中来,并参与欧盟事务,通过各州的管理机构,实施联邦各项法规。

English - Explanation:

Germany's chosen mode of government is federalism, as set forth in the country's constitution (Basic Law) in 1949. The hallmark of the German federal system is the close relationship between the federal (Bund) and the state (Länder) levels. The Länder engage in the legislative process via their representation in the upper house of parliament (Bundesrat), have a voice in EU matters and implement federal laws via the Länder governments.

联邦反歧视处

English: Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency
Topic:

联邦政治教育中心

English: Federal Agency for Civic Education
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

缩写:bpb。联邦政治教育中心,向所有对政治感兴趣的男女公民提供该方面的支持。其任务是:增进对政治实况的了解、强化民主意识、增进政治参与意愿。

English - Explanation:

The Federal Agency for Civic Education assists all interested citizens in understanding politics, fosters public awareness of the political process and of democracy, and encourages citizens to actively engage with politics.

色情短信

English: sexting
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

色情短信,是由“色情”和“发短信”组成的词组,描述了通过计算机或智能手机发送和接收自制的、大尺度的讯息。科学界已经引入“色情短信”一词,但正如研究所表明的那样,这个词并不为年轻人所知。青少年(以及成年人)更倾向于将这种情形描述为发送“性感录影/自拍/照片/拍照”或“裸体”。

English - Explanation:

The term "sexting", a portmanteau combining the words "sex" and "texting", describes the sending and receiving of self-produced, explicit images via a computer or smartphone. Although the term is established among researchers, it is not commonly used by adolescents, as studies have shown. Young people (and adults) are more likely to use terms referring to the act itself, such as "sending sexy photos/selfies/pics/nudes".

获准避难权的人, 合法避难者

English: person entitled to asylum, person with the right to asylum
Topic:

路人大战;狗屎风暴

English: shitstorm
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

路人大战一词,描述了一种伤害性的网络行为,一种自我放纵的愤怒浪潮,它脱离了辩论之类的客观性本质,而是从情感上宣泄,并转移到更个人的层面,甚至造成最为恶劣的伤害。该词主要应用在博客帖子或评论、推特消息或脸书消息方面。

English - Explanation:

The term "shitstorm" describes a type of insulting or denigrating online behaviour. It refers to the uncontrollable and highly emotional form of public backlash that is largely unrelated to the actual issue at hand and becomes increasingly personal and injurious. A shitstorm can be triggered by a blog post, in the comments section of a blog, or on Twitter or Facebook, for instance.

辅助性原则

English: principle of subsidiarity
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

根据该原则,如果下层的单位力量不足,无法完成某一功能,那么上层的国家或社会单位才能插手,提供帮助,接手该任务。

English - Explanation:

Under the principle of subsidiarity, a higher public agency or social instance may only intervene or fulfil a certain function if a lower-level instance lacks the ability to do so itself.

避难申请者

English: asylum seeker, asylum-seeker
Topic:

针对特定群体的敌意

English: group-focused enmity, outgroup enmity, outgroup hate
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

针对特定群体的敌意(GMF),指的是特定的、常常较弱的群体由于其被认定的特征或者被挑选出来的特征,而受到贬低。除了种族主义和仇外心理,针对特殊群体的敌意还包括下列情况:对某一宗教群体的贬低(反犹太主义、仇视伊斯兰教);敌视其他性别倾向的人(同性恋恐惧症、性别歧视);展示已经确定下来的特权以及出于某些身体特征(残疾人)、社会标准(无家可归者或者长期失业者)歧视他人。针对特定群体的敌意,也可以表现得不引人注目,例如只是在意见表达方面展示出来,但也可以表现为歧视、排斥、甚至是暴力形式。

English - Explanation:

Group-focused enmity (GFE) refers to the denigration of specific, primarily weaker, groups on the basis of assigned or selected characteristics. In addition to xenophobia and racism, GFE comprises denigration based on a specific religious affiliation (anti-Semitism, islamophobia), the disparagement of sexual otherness (homophobia, sexism), the demonstration of established privileges as well as denigration based on physical characteristics (in the case of disabled persons) or social criteria (in the case of the homeless or the long-term unemployed). GFE can be expressed subtly, for example in the form of opinions. However, it can also take the form of discrimination, ostracism or even violence.

难民局

English: determining authority, authority competent in asylum matters
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

负责接收及处理避难申请的政府部门。

English - Explanation:

Authority responsible for receiving and examining applications for asylum.

需要获得保护的

English: in need of/requiring protection, vulnerable
Topic:

青少年参与(计划或决策)

English: youth participation
Topic:

青少年及培训生代表

English: youth and apprentice representation in a company or authority
Topic:

青少年检查

English: youth check
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

青少年检查,是联邦青少年策略“为了建立更适合年轻人的社会而行动”的一部分:人们检查立法项目,看看它们对12岁至27岁的年轻人会造成什么样的影响。

English - Explanation:

As part of the German youth strategy "Taking Action for a Youth Appropriate Society", the youth check is used to assess whether public measures actually take adequate account of young people's interests.

(社会)性别

English: gender
Topic:
Chinese - Explanation:

(社会)性别的意思是:不能刻板地从“女性”和“男性”角度出发看待人,而是要考虑到人的区别性和多样性。没有人只是男性或女性,但是社会生活中,很大程度上人们受到分配的性别角度影响。因此,重要的是要认识到性别差异,但如同联邦宪法法院所说的那样,不能将其固定为传统的角色分配。使用(社会)性别这个概念,总是意味着对性别的设想是可以改变的。

English - Explanation:

Gender does not just refer to female or male gender; it also means taking account of the differences between and the diversity of individuals. No one is just "male" or "female". The way we coexist as members of society is in many ways determined by the gender roles we are assigned. That is why it is important to remain aware of gender differences but not, as Germany's Federal Constitutional Court has stated, to consider them rigid and non-negotiable. "Gender" should hence also be considered a category that can change over time.

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