Action Reconciliation Service for Peace

中文: 德国和平谅解行动
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

The German organisation Action Reconciliation Service for Peace (ARSP) is committed to working toward reconciliation and peace, as well as fighting racism, discrimination and social exclusion as a form of facing up to Germany's Nazi past. ARSP volunteers provide assistance to survivors of Nazi concentration camps and forced labour schemes and to mental health patients, the homeless, refugees, and individuals with disabilities. They work on the ground in community projects, at memorial sites and on anti-racism initiatives and help to preserve historical sites for future generations.

中文 - 释义:

该行动(缩写:ASF)的目标是让社会讨论国家社会主义(即纳粹)的问题。该行动的志愿分子帮助纳粹集中营里、强制性劳役后存活下来的人,为患有心理疾病、居无定所、难民或残疾人提供帮助。他们在城市里、纪念场所积极开展项目,倡议进行反种族主义活动,并为下一代人维护历史学习地点。

anniversary

中文: 纪念日
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

An anniversary is a date in the calendar that commemorates a notable historical event or on which a personality of strong national or religious significance is remembered or honoured.

中文 - 释义:

纪念日(或者周年日)是人们纪念某个特殊历史事件或某位具有国家、民族或宗教意义人物的日子。

Anschluss

中文: 德语词“Anschluss”(被德国吞并)
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

The German term "Anschluss" is used, also in English, to denote the de facto annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany in March 1938.

中文 - 释义:

在历史语境下,Anschluss这个词指的是1938年3月,当时的奥地利实际上已经被纳粹德国吞并。

appraising history, learning about history, engaging with history, dealing with (one's) history

中文: 清理历史, 反思及处理历史
主题领域:

armistice

中文: 停战
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

An armistice is the temporary laying down of arms in a war, often a deliberate step along the way towards peace.

中文 - 释义:

停战,是在战争期间暂时放下武器,通常是实现和平的初步准备。

Aryan certificate

中文: 雅利安人证明
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

During Germany's National Socialist (Nazi) regime, public servants, doctors and lawyers, in particular, had to produce an "Aryan certificate" proving their ethnicity if they wanted to keep working in their professions. This certificate could be a marriage, birth or death certificate, an officially recognised proof of one's ancestry, or official geneological records. Holders were only recognised as Aryans if the documents went back to their grandparents' generation. Members of the Nazi (NSDAP) party even had to prove their ancestry all the way back to 1800. Individuals were considered non-Aryan if their parents or grandparents were non-Aryan, especially Jewish. Just one non-Aryan parent or grandparent was sufficient for a person to be considered non-Aryan.

中文 - 释义:

纳粹德国时期,尤其是官员、公共部门的员工、医生、律师必须提交一份出生证明,这样才能够继续从事自己的职业。所谓的“雅利安人证明”包括:结婚证、出生证或者死亡证明,或受官方公证的祖籍证明或者族谱。为了能够万无一失地证明自己的雅利安血统,提交的证明必须追溯到祖父母那一代人。纳粹党员需提供直至1800年的证明。如果父母或者祖父母不是雅利安人,尤其祖先中有犹太人,那么这个人不能被看成是雅利安人。父母或者祖父母中只有一方是雅利安人,也是不合条件的。

Aryanisation

中文: 雅利安化
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

The term Aryanisation denotes the Nazi-era practice of forcibly expropriating assets held by non-Jews and handing them over to non-Jews (referred to as Aryans), and the ever increasing limitations put on Jews in exercising their occupations.

中文 - 释义:

雅利安化,强调纳粹时期,强制性占有犹太公民的财产,让非犹太人、也就是所谓的雅利安人来从中获益,并且不断限制犹太人的就业领域。资料来源:https://www.dhm.de/lemo/kapitel/ns-regime/industrie-und-wirtschaft/arisierung.html

attitude

中文: 态度
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

An attitude reflects an individual's general outlook and influences how they think and act.

中文 - 释义:

态度描写了内在(基本态度),这种态度影响人的思想和行为。

battlefield, battleground

中文: 战场
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Over the course of history, the world's battlegrounds have seen much death, destruction and human suffering. The names of former battlefields are deeply embedded in the collective memory of those who were involved in the wars in question; the fields form a part of these groups' collective identity, regardless of whether they were victorious or not. Up until World War II, the only memorials erected on battlefields tended only to honour the victorious parties. Since then memorial sites have increasingly been designed as places for reconciliation.

中文 - 释义:

世界历史上,战场上的冲突一再招致死亡、破坏和人类苦难。无论胜利或失败,以前的战场,都深深地扎根于有关人民的集体记忆之中,这些战场都能帮助形成身份意识。第二次世界大战以前,人们往往只为战场胜利者建造英雄纪念碑,二战之后,人们越发将纪念地点看成和解之地。

biographical history

中文: 传记性历史工作
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

An example of teaching history through the use of biographies is the collection "Das Lebensgeschichtliche Netz", a German-language website. The individual biographies it lists provide an insight into life as it was between 1933 and 1945. These life stories - of victims and perpetrators alike - help readers even without prior knowledge to understand how National Socialism functioned.

中文 - 释义:

传记性历史工作的一个例子就是“生活历史网”的传记集合,让人们能对1933年至1945年的个人命运获得颇具启发性的了解。即使没有先期知识,人们也能够通过受害者、犯罪者的生活历史,了解纳粹主义的运转方式。

Blitzkrieg

中文: 闪电战
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Blitzkrieg is a Nazi-era method of warfare that Germany's Wehrmacht military forces used to invade the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France in a short space of time and push back the British expeditionary force. The effect of these Blitzkrieg manoeuvers as practised during World War II is that the attacked forces came under such pressure that they either rapidly capitulated or retreated, leaving behind their heavy weaponry. The term "Blitzkrieg" has since entered other languages, including English, French and Italian.

中文 - 释义:

纳粹德国时期,德国军队计划在短时间内攻占荷兰、比利时、卢森堡、法国,并击退英国远征军。二战里闪电战的特点就是:受到攻击的军队或者被迫迅速投降,或者抛弃重型武器逃跑。德语的闪电战这个词(Blitzkrieg)作为外来词,已经进入其他语言,例如英语、法语、意大利语中。

capitulation

中文: 投降
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

In international law, capitulation refers to a unilateral declaration of surrender. In a conflict, in return for laying down arms the capitulating party may demand certain concessions, for instance the approval of territorial claims or guaranteed protection for civilians against looting and attacks.

中文 - 释义:

投降是根据国际法,单方面宣告屈服。冲突的战败方放下武器,为此他们要求对方做出某些让步。这些让步可能是领土方面的要求,或者要求保障平民不受到劫掠和袭击。

collaboration

中文: 合作;勾结
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Collaboration refers to the cooperation between individuals or groups. Historically, the term carries negative connotations, notably the cooperation with enemies in times of war or with occupying forces. Individuals who cooperate with others in this sense are referred to as "collaborators".

中文 - 释义:

合作,指的是个人或群体之间的合作或协作。从历史上看,这个词带有负面含义,表示在战争期间或占领时期与敌人合作。从这一含义上讲,”合作“的人被称为内奸。

coming to terms with the past

中文: 反思及处理历史
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

The German term "Vergangenheitsbewältigung" refers to the process of a nation coming to terms with its recent past. In Germany, that is largely its Nazi heritage.

中文 - 释义:

一个国家反思及处理其近代历史中的问题部分,在德国尤其处理国家社会主义相关问题。

concentration camp

中文: 集中营
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Since the Nazi era, the term "concentration camp" has been synonymous with the labour and extermination camps run by the Nazi regime during World War II.

中文 - 释义:

缩写为:KZ。 自纳粹时期以来,集中营指的是纳粹政权的劳动营和死亡营。

crimes against humanity

中文: 反人类罪
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Under international law, crimes against humanity are criminal offences. They are defined as acts that are broadly and/or systematically committed against civilians.

中文 - 释义:

也被称为:危害人类罪。反人类罪,是国际刑法中指明的一种刑事犯罪,其特点是对平民人口进行大规模或系统性的攻击。

degenerate art

中文: 堕落艺术
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

During the Nazi regime, "degenerate art" was the term assigned to all works of art or cultural philosophies that were considered incompatible with the Nazi's understanding of art and beauty, including Expressionism, Impressionism, Dadaism, New Objectivity, Surrealism, Cubism and Fauvism.

中文 - 释义:

在纳粹政权中,“堕落艺术”包括所有与纳粹分子的艺术理解和审美标准不相容的艺术作品、文化潮流,具体有:表现主义、印象派、达达主义、新客观主义、超现实主义、立体主义、野兽派。

denazification

中文: 非纳粹化
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Denazification was an Allied initiative launched in 1945 to ban the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), abolish all Nazi laws, and rid Germany of physical symbols of the Third Reich in everyday life, such as road signs, books, uniforms, and medals and decorations. The International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg held a number of trials to identify the war crimes perpetrated by the most important perpetrators and Nazi organisations. The majority of Germans had to submit to denazification, which at first was performed by the Allies, later by German-run tribunals.

中文 - 释义:

通过非纳粹化,同盟国于1945年禁止国家​社会​主义​德国​工人党(NSDAP)及其下属组织,废除所有纳粹法律并清除“第三帝国”的痕迹,如街道标志、书籍、制服和奖章。国际军事法庭确定了纽伦堡主要战犯和纳粹组织的罪行。大多数德国人必须参与非纳粹化程序,最初由同盟国,随后由德国法庭执行该非纳粹化程序。

denial

中文: 否认
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

One context in which the term "denial" is frequently used is the Holocaust, that is, the denial of Nazi crimes committed during the National Socialist regime. Specifically, Holocaust denial refers to the act of denying, or playing down, the Holocaust. Undeniable historical evidence notwithstanding, Holocaust deniers claim that the systematic extermination of around six million European Jews never happened.

中文 - 释义:

例如否认纳粹罪行,包括否认大屠杀罪行。否认大屠杀,指的是争执大屠杀是否发生,或者很大程度上将其无害化。人们否认已证实的历史事实,宣称并未曾对大约六百万欧洲犹太人进行有计划的、系统的、旨在灭绝犹太人的种族清洗。

deportation

中文: 驱逐出境
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Deportation denotes the state-sponsored removal of an individual to another territory. The Nazis deported Jews in Germany and in the territories they occupied and/or controlled during World War II, citing racial reasons. Between October 1941 and March 1943, the enormous number of Jews thus removed from Germany were deported to specially built areas known as ghettos (e.g., in Warsaw) or sent directly to concentration or extermination camps.

中文 - 释义:

指的是国家有组织地将人驱逐到其他地区。纳粹分子出于种族主义原因,驱逐德国及二战中受德国占领并控制的地区的犹太人。1941年10月至1943年3月,流放过程中,德国犹太人被大规模地关押到新建的所谓的犹太人居住区,例如华沙犹太人区,或者被关押到集中营、死亡营里。

deserter

中文: 逃兵
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Desertion means the departure without leave of soldiers from military service both during war and in peacetime. The individuals in question are known as deserters. More than 100,000 German soldiers deserted during World War II. Deserters who were apprehended felt the full force of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) judicial system: 22,750 of them were sentenced to death.

中文 - 释义:

指的是士兵在战争或和平期间,逃避其军事义务。叛离军事义务的士兵,被概称为逃兵。二战中,超过100000名德国士兵当了逃兵。军事法庭冷酷、毫不容情地对地被逮捕的逃兵:22750名逃兵被处以死刑。

documentation centre

中文: 文献中心
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

A documentation centre can, for instance, serve to educate the public about national socialism and/or function as a local memorial site.

中文 - 释义:

例如作为地方性纪念馆的纳粹文献中心。

euthanasia

中文: 安乐死
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

During the Nazi regime (1933-1945) many seriously or incurably ill individuals, among them children and seniors, were killed by government order, for the Nazis considered them to be "unworthy of life". The Nazis themselves referred to these killings as "euthanasia" or "assisted death".

中文 - 释义:

1933年至1945年纳粹统治时期,国家下令处死许多身患重病或不治之症的人,其中包括老人及儿童。根据纳粹犯罪性的观点,这些人“不值得生活”。纳粹分子将这一罪行称为“安乐死”(原意:“帮助死亡”)。

extermination camp

中文: 死亡营
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Extermination camps were concentration camps that, during the Nazi regime, were set up and run by units of the German paramilitary organisation SS in Poland and Belarus to exterminate large numbers of Jews and other groups persecuted by the Nazis.

中文 - 释义:

死亡营,是集中营的一类,纳粹时期的党卫队在波兰和白俄罗斯的死亡营里,大规模杀害犹太人和其他受纳粹迫害的人。

fascism

中文: 法西斯主义
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

From the 1920s onwards, the term came to denote the extreme nationalist, heavily hierarchical, anti-liberal and anti-Marxist movements, ideologies and governance systems that attempted to supplant parliamentary democracies after the end of World War I.

中文 - 释义:

二十世纪二十年代起,这个词被用于描述所有极端民族主义的、根据元首原则而组织的各种反自由主义、反马克思主义运动、意识形态或统治体系,自第一次世界大战起,法西斯主义的各种运动试图取代议制民主原则。

Final Solution

中文: 犹太人问题的最终解决方案
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Final Solution was the term used by the Nazis since July 1941 to denote their plan to exterminate all persons they considered Jewish in Europe and beyond. It was an objective they pursued systematically right up until the unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht armed forces.

中文 - 释义:

犹太人问题的最终解决方案,简称为最终解决方案,纳粹分子使用这个概念,从1941年7月起至德国国防军无条件投降之前,有系统性地迫害犹太人,计划在欧洲及世界范围谋杀所有被他们定义为犹太人的群体。

forced labour

中文: 强制劳役
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Over the course of World War II, more than 20 million foreign civilian labourers, concentration camp inmates and prisoners of war from all occupied territories, largely Poland and the Soviet Union, were forced to work for Germany.

中文 - 释义:

被迫进行强制劳役的二千多万外国平民工人,来自所有被占领国家,是集中营囚犯和战俘,他们在二战期间必须为德国工作,其中大多数人来自波兰和苏联。

gas chamber

中文: 毒气室
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

The Nazis used gas chambers for the mass extermination of individuals for "racial" or political reasons. The gas chambers were located in killing centres and concentration and extermination camps.

中文 - 释义:

纳粹分子出于“种族”或政治因素,使用毒气室,大规模谋杀关押在杀戮机构、集中营和死亡营的人。

gassing

中文: 毒气室方法
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Gassing was the method by which the Nazi regime killed around three million Jews and tens of thousands of Sinti, Roma and other prisoners in the gas chambers it built in the extermination camps. The agent used was hydrogen cyanide, known in German as "Zyklon B".

中文 - 释义:

纳粹政权使用毒气室方法,在死亡营的毒气室里,主要使用氰化氢(Zyklon B),杀死约三百万犹太人和数万名辛提人、罗姆人和其他囚犯。

Gastarbeiter

中文: 外籍劳工
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Literally "guest worker", Gastarbeiter are individuals who were granted temporary residency in the Federal Republic or the German Democratic Republic under a labour recruitment scheme. During the 1960s, when the temporary residency requirement was lifted in practice, the term became a popular designation for all labour migrants in Germany.

中文 - 释义:

外籍劳工这个概念指的是一个群体中的成员,出于雇佣协议,为了获得收入,在一段时间期限里留在德意志联邦共和国及德意志民主共和国。然而自二十世纪六十年代起,由于人们实际上取消了时间期限,在德意志联邦共和国人们也习惯用这个概念来描述劳工移民。

genocide

中文: 种族清洗
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Since the adoption of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide in 1948, the term "genocide" has been a criminal offence under international law. It cannot come under the statute of limitations. The term "genocide" refers to the action of directly or indirectly destroying a population either wholly or in part due to their nationality, ethnicity, race or religious beliefs. Genocide is hence also often referred to as "the crime of crimes" in international law.

中文 - 释义:

同义词:种族灭绝。自1948年预防和惩治灭绝种族罪公约出台以来,种族清洗或种族灭绝一直是国际刑法中的一种刑事犯罪,未曾过期失效。其特点是刻意直接或间接地、完全或部分地摧毁民族、族裔、种族或宗教团体。因此,它也被称为罪中之罪(英语词称为crime of crimes),或被描述为国际刑法中最严重的犯罪现象。

group of victims

中文: 受害群体
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Community of people whose unifying characteristics (e.g. equal descent, religion, nationality, sexual/political orientation, etc.) make them into a group who have mostly suffered considerable injustice (e.g. murder, imprisonment).

中文 - 释义:

一由人组成的群体,这些人由于其共性(例如,相同的起源、宗教、国籍、性/政治取向等)使他们成为一个受到极大不公正对待的群体(例如谋杀、逮捕)。

historical audio archive

中文: 口述故事音频档案
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Historical audio archives are a form of teaching history through the use of biographical material: contemporary witnesses and survivors tell their life stories and talk about what they have experienced. The audio recordings are archived, e.g., online. This enables users to listen to, empathise with and understand their stories.

中文 - 释义:

传记历史工作的一种形式:时代证人和幸存者讲述他们的生活故事,并报道其经历。人们将报告和叙述存档,例如存档于互联网档案馆。通过这种方式,可以进行深入的倾听,得到深刻的切身体会和理解。

historical-political education

中文: 历史政治教育
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Historical-political education, in the context of right-wing extremism prevention, seeks to encourage young people to engage in critical reflection of National Socialism in order to prevent the era and the ideology from becoming glorified or played down, and to raise awareness among the young generation of the dangers of inhuman, anti-democratic ideologies. To this end, this kind of education teaches about the crimes committed during the period in question and explains the social context and circumstances that allowed the crimes to happen in the first place. Parallels are drawn to young people's lives and realities today and issues such as responsibility and opportunities to take action discussed. Besides the actual teaching itself, young people are encouraged to engage with historical sites, e.g., by visiting memorial sites or attending guided tours of historical districts. This has been shown to be a valuable way to reach out to young people and help them empathise with the victims.

中文 - 释义:

历史政治教育工作,在预防右倾极端倾向的背景下,目标是对纳粹时期进行批判性反思,以避免人们对这一时期进行改变及无害化,让年轻人敏锐注意到贬低他人的、敌视民主的意识形态所带来的危害。为了实现这一目标,历史教育工作传播当时所犯罪行及罪犯方面的知识,介绍当时历史情形下,这类罪行如何得以发生。这样,也能让年轻人将历史与现代社会及生活实际情况联系起来,并探讨个人的责任和行动可能性。除了介绍事实性知识外,参观历史地点,例如参观纪念馆或听专人介绍历史城区,也非常重要。而与历史证人之间开展的工作也颇具意义,能让年轻人对这类主题有切身体会,并且对受害者产生同情心。资料来源:“民主生活”词汇表 ; https://www.demokratie-leben.de/wissen/glossar/glossary-detail/historisch-politische-bildung.html

Holocaust

中文: 大屠杀(尤指纳粹对犹太人的屠杀)
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Also referred to as the Shoah ("catastrophe" in Hebrew), the word "Holocaust" denotes the crimes committed by the Nazis against the Jews of Europe, especially the systematic extermination of millions of Jews during World War II.

中文 - 释义:

也被写作:Shoah。大屠杀这个词,现在用来描述纳粹对欧洲犹太人所犯下的罪行,特别是在二战期间对数百万以上的犹太人进行系统性谋杀。

Holocaust education

中文: 大屠杀方面的教育
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

The Holocaust, and National Socialism, are permanent features of the curriculum taught in all 16 of Germany's federal states. Holocaust education can help to raise young people's awareness of the dangers of anti-Semitism.

中文 - 释义:

大屠杀以及纳粹主义,是16个德国联邦州课程的固定组成部分。“大屠杀方面的教育”可以提高青少年对反犹太主义所带来危害的敏感性。

Interwar period, Interwar years

中文: 两次世界大战之间的时期
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Denotes the period between World War I and II.

中文 - 释义:

一战后到二战前的时期。

invasion

中文: 侵略
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

In a historical/political context, "invasion" denotes the intrusion of armed forces into a certain territory.

中文 - 释义:

在历史政治教育的情况下,入侵指的是部队入侵特定地区。

Jew

中文: 犹太人
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Jews are members of an ethnic-religious group or individuals who belong to the Jewish people and/or are of Jewish faith. The use of the term carries different connotations in the historical context of different countries, especially if they have Jewish minorities. There have been frequent attempts by Anti-Semites to change the racial definition of who ought to be considered Jewish.

中文 - 释义:

犹太人这个概念,用来描述一个民族宗教团体或个人,这些群体或个人可以是犹太人和犹太教的一部分。在不同国家的历史背景下,以及根据当地宗教少数群体情况,各个国家对这个词的看法不一。对犹太人持敌意的人,经常试图从人种角度出发重新定义哪些人应被视为犹太人。

labour recruitment agreement, agreement on labour recruitment

中文: 劳工招聘协议
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Between 1955 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany signed labour recruitment agreements with Italy, Spain, Greece, Turkey, Morocco, South Korea, Portugal, Tunisia and Yugoslavia in order to meet its increased need for labour as the German economy expanded.

中文 - 释义:

1955年至1968年,联邦德国与下列国家签订的劳工招聘协议,以满足经济增长所需要的劳动力:意大利、西班牙、希腊、土耳其、摩洛哥、韩国、葡萄牙、突尼斯、南斯拉夫。

later-born individual

中文: 二战后出生者
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

In German, „Nachgeborener" (literally, "those who are later born") refers to the generation of grandchildren of those who lived through World War II.

中文 - 释义:

指的是二战证人的孙子那一代人。

local history

中文: 地方史
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Local history is the study of history in a local or community context, e.g., a village, town or region, and of the way local history is documented.

中文 - 释义:

也叫做:当地历史。指的是地方、村庄、城市或界定好的区域的历史,以及该方面的历史记录。

martyred city

中文: 殉难者地区
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

The term "martyred city" refers to places where the German occupying forces committed crimes against the native population during World War II, for instance in Greece.

中文 - 释义:

殉难者地区是第二次世界大战期间德国占领者对平民犯下罪行的地方,例如在希腊犯下的罪行。在这种情况下,人们也常常使用“受害者村庄”和“受害者地区”这两个同义词。

martyred village

中文: 殉难者村庄
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

The term "martyred village" refers to places where the German occupying forces committed crimes against the native population during World War II, for instance in Greece.

中文 - 释义:

殉难者村庄是第二次世界大战期间德国占领者对平民犯下罪行的地方,例如在希腊犯下的罪行。在这种情况下,人们也常常使用“受害者村庄”和“受害者地区”这两个同义词。

mass grave

中文: 万人坑
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

In totalitarian regimes, the victims of mass murder are buried in mass graves. During World War II, the German Wehrmacht (armed forces) took retaliatory action in occupied Greece, France and Italy, among other countries, to kill entire village populations and buried them in mass graves.

中文 - 释义:

极权政府进行大规模谋杀之后,受害者埋葬于万人坑中。 第二次世界大战期间,德国国防军在报复过程中,杀死了希腊、法国和意大利占领区整个村庄的人,并将受害者埋葬于万人坑中。

mass murder

中文: 大规模屠杀
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Predominantly used in criminological context, the term "mass murder" is also used in political science as well as colloquially to refer to events during which a large number of people are killed intentionally. One example is political mass murders perpetrated by a regime or by terrorists during an attack. Individual murders in the context of genocide are also often referred to as an instance of mass murder. In the context of the Holocaust and Porajmos (the Romani genocide), "mass extermination" emerged as a related term. Accordingly, historians cointed the term "extermination camp" in reference to the Nazi's industrial-scale death camps.

中文 - 释义:

该概念除了使用在犯罪学之外,也应用于政治学领域和口头表达之中,描述大量人口被故意杀害的事件,特别是一些政府或恐怖袭击事件出于政治动机,进行大规模屠杀。而种族灭绝行动的某些屠杀行为,也通常被称为大屠杀。对犹太人的大屠杀和纳粹期间对罗姆人的种族灭绝(德语词为Porajmos)这两个词汇,影响了大规模屠杀这一概念的广度和维度,类似于历史学家后来将纳粹工业化杀戮地点,称为死亡营。

massacre

中文: 大屠杀
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

A massacre is an act of mass murder under particularly cruel circumstances, often defined as "indiscriminate slaughter" or "bloodbath", frequently motivated by hate or revenge. The terms used in an international law context are more sharply defined, such as "genocide", "war crime" or "crime against humanity", since the term "massacre" carries a set of vague connotations that lend themselves to propaganda and misuse.

中文 - 释义:

大屠杀,是特别残忍的情况下进行的大规模屠杀、血腥屠杀,通常在仇恨或报复等动机下进行屠杀。而在国际法中,人们使用诸如灭绝种族罪、战争罪或危害人类罪这类定义更为精确的术语,因为“大屠杀”一词带有含糊的附加含义,因此更容易被滥用在宣传领域。

memorial

中文: 纪念碑
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

See also: war memorial. A memorial commemorates soldiers killed in action, but can also be erected in memory of civilian victims of a war or persecution.

中文 - 释义:

参见词条:阵亡战士纪念碑。用来纪念战争中阵亡的士兵,或者纪念(战争、迫害过程中)的平民牺牲者。

memorial site seminar, seminar or workshop at a memorial site

中文: 纪念馆(里举行的)研讨会
主题领域:

memory

中文: 记忆
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Memory can be defined as the sum total of all perspectives and representation of the past that characterises an individual or a social group owing to their specific socio-cultural position.

中文 - 释义:

指的是关于过去的所有观点和表现形式的整体,这些观点和表现形式根据个人或社会团体的社会文化特定立场,展现个人或社会群体的特性.

multi-perspectivity, multiperspectivity

中文: 多重视角
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

In the context of teaching history, multi-perspectivity means exploring historical issues from a variety of different angles and using different sources.

中文 - 释义:

在历史教学的背景下,多重视角意味着可以从不同的视角来处理历史事实。

nation

中文: 民族
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

The term "nation" denotes a larger group or community of people considered to have a shared language, traditions, customs, ethnicity, etc. 

中文 - 释义:

民族,指的是由人组成的较大的群体或集体,他们拥有同样的特征,例如语言、传统、习俗、风俗或起源。

National Socialism

中文: 国家社会主义;纳粹主义
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

National Socialism, also known as Nazism, generally denotes the movement itself, the National Socialist German Worker's Party (NSDAP), and the Nazi regime (1933-1945). The hallmarks of National Socialism were anti-Marxism, anti-liberalism, anti-parliamentarism, anti-Semitism and a racial ideology that was obsessed with "purity" and ethnic homogeneity. The eventual consequence of this radical racism was the systematic examination of Europe's Jews (known as the Holocaust). The foreign policy pursued by the Nazis was imperialistic in nature.

中文 - 释义:

如今,国家社会主义(缩写NS)一般指的是国家社会主义运动、纳粹党(自1920年以来)或纳粹政权(1933-1945年)。纳粹意识形态的特点是反马克思主义、反自由主义、反议会主义、反犹太主义和旨在“纯洁”和种族同质的种族意识形态。这种极端的种族主义的后果是对欧洲犹太人的系统性谋杀(大屠杀)。外交政策方面,纳粹主义追求的是实现帝国主义目标。

National Socialist crimes, Nazi crimes

中文: 国家社会主义罪行
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Nazi crimes include concentration camps, persecution of Jews, euthanasia, the murder of prisoners of war, massacres against civilians, the "extermination through labour" strategy, persecution of dissidents and homosexuals, and experiments on living humans.

中文 - 释义:

也称为:纳粹罪行。这些罪行包括集中营、对犹太人的迫害、安乐死、谋杀战俘、屠杀平民、所谓的“通过工作实行灭绝”、对辛提人和罗姆人的种族灭绝、对持不同政见者的迫害、对同性恋者的迫害,对活人进行人体实验。

Nazi crimes

中文: 纳粹主义罪行
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Also known as National Socialist crimes, Nazi crimes include concentration camps, persecution of Jews, euthanasia, the murder of prisoners of war, massacres against civilians, the "extermination through labour" strategy, persecution of dissidents and homosexuals, and experiments on living humans.

中文 - 释义:

也被称为:国家社会主义罪行。这些罪行包括集中营、对犹太人的迫害、安乐死、谋杀战俘、屠杀平民、所谓的“通过工作实行灭绝”、对辛提人和罗姆人的种族灭绝、对持不同政见者的迫害、对同性恋者的迫害,对活人进行人体实验。

neo-Nazi

中文: 新纳粹分子
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Neo-Nazi is the term used to denote right-wing extremists who were born after 1945 whose beliefs and political attitudes openly resemble those of the Nazi regime under Adolf Hitler. They perpetuate Nazi heritage and SA and SS traditions and play down and glorify Nazi politics.

中文 - 释义:

新纳粹分子,指的是1945年以后出生的右翼极端分子,他们在精神和政治层面、符号象征和行动方式方面,公开显示自己遵从阿道夫•希特勒统治下的历史国家社会主义传统。他们维护纳粹遗产,维持纳粹冲锋队和党卫军协会的传统,无害化并美化纳粹分子的政策。

NS

中文: NS-纳粹主义
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

In German, commonly used abbreviation for National Socialism.

中文 - 释义:

国家社会主义的缩写

occupation

中文: 同盟國軍事佔領德國
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

After Germany capitulated and World War II ended, the Allied Forces (the United Kingdom, France, the USA and Russia) divided Germany into four occupation zones.

中文 - 释义:

也称为占领统治。二次世界大战结束后,德国投降,同盟国(英国、法国、美国和俄罗斯)将德国分成四个占领区。

occupation zone

中文: 占领区
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

After Germany capitulated and World War II ended, the Allied Forces (the United Kingdom, France, the USA and Russia) divided Germany into four occupation zones. The Allies quickly set up a temporary administration that was governed by the Allied Control Council. They also encouraged the establishment of political groups with a view to giving the country its own permanent government.

中文 - 释义:

德国投降、二战结束后,同盟国(美国、英国、法国和俄国)将德国分成四个占领区。人们迅速建立起受同盟国管制委员会领导的临时性管理部门,此外,他们支持建立政治团体,以方便将德国长期转交给德国政府。

occupying power

中文: 占领国
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

In Germany, the term "Besatzungsmacht" is often used without further context to denote the Allied occupying forces in the German Reich. After World War II the forces were also referred to as the "Siegermächte", or victorious forces. The term "Drei Mächte" (three forces) is also in use, relating to the three Allies, Great Britain, France and the United States. The term "Vier Mächte" (four forces) includes France as the fourth.

中文 - 释义:

在德国,没有其他上下文语境下,占领国这个词常常指的是占领德意志帝国的同盟国,这三个(不包括法国)或者四个同盟国成员在二战后被描述成战胜国,这四个国家是:英国、法国、美国、苏联。

partisan

中文: 游击队员
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

A partisan is a member of an irregular military force. These groups are armed and operate behind enemy lines to attack and dispel foreign troops.

中文 - 释义:

这些人不是作为普通士兵,而是作为武装分子,成为潜伏武装力量的成员,或成为反入侵团体的成员。

peace education

中文: 和平教育
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Peace education aims to prevent and manage conflicts and encourage their resolution by non-violent methods and means.

中文 - 释义:

和平教育的目的是:促进人们预防和克服冲突,有可能的情况下通过非暴力方法解决冲突。

peace movement

中文: 和平运动
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

A peace movement is a social movement that actively works to prevent wars, conflicts and armament and that rejects war as a political tool. In many Western countries, the arms race of the 1980s gave rise to a major peace movement that garnered broad support from many social groups, and which aimed to implement alternative security concepts and, in the long term, achieve full nuclear disarmament.

中文 - 释义:

和平运动,指的是旨在阻止战争、冲突和军备的各种积极、有组织的社会活动,并将战争排除于政治手段之外。随着二十世纪八十年代军备竞争的发展,一些西方国家里出现了跨国的广泛和平运动,这些运动受到广大民众支持,其目标是致力于实现其他的安全纲领、并长期实现完全核裁军。

perpetrator generation, generation of perpetrators

中文: 作为犯罪分子的一代人
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

The German term "Tätergeneration" denotes the generation that perpetrated Nazi crimes.

中文 - 释义:

指的是纳粹犯罪分子那一代人。

place of remembrance, memorial site

中文: 纪念地
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Places of remembrance are sites that allow for collective remembrance and collective identity. They have a strong symbolic power and the capacity to reach out to large groups of individuals and to provide a connection across generations.

中文 - 释义:

指的是代表集体记忆及集体身份意识的地点,这些地点具有极大的象征意义,并能够触动大量人,而且能将这些象征意义一代人一代人传递下去。

political fatigue, political lethargy, voter fatigue

中文: 政治疲乏
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

The term "political fatigue", also referred to as political lethargy or voter fatigue, describes two different types of negative attitude on the part of citizens:
1) general disenchantment with politicians and political parties, expressing dissatisfaction with current politics,
2) general disenchantment with politics and governments, expressing dissatisfaction with the political system and with democratic institutions.

中文 - 释义:

政治疲乏,也被称为政治疲倦或政治疲惫,指的是一个国家里公民所持的两种不同消极态度:1)一方面是对当前政治感到不满,对政治家和政党感到疲乏,2)另一方面,对政治制度和民主制度普遍感到不满,因此对政治或国家感到疲乏。

reconciliation

中文: 谅解;和解
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

In the context of child and youth services and international youth work, the term is used to refer to all activities that help to come to terms with history, manage conflicts, and create peace between states, peoples and groups of individuals. In the context of German-Greek cooperation, the term denotes the process of coming to terms with the conflicts that exist to this day as a result of the atrocities committed by the Nazi regime in Greece during World War II. See also "reconciliation efforts".

中文 - 释义:

在青少年儿童专业工作和国际青少年工作的语境下,该概念不同于日常使用情况,描述的活动旨在处理历史、冲突,并促进国家、民族和各群体之间和平。在德国与希腊的合作中,该概念尤其描述处理纳粹政权暴行而在希腊引起的冲突,这些冲突现仍然存在。参见词条:和解工作;谅解工作。

reconciliation efforts, reconciliation work

中文: 和解工作;谅解工作
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

In the context of child and youth services and international youth work, the term is used to refer to all activities that help to come to terms with history, manage conflicts, and create peace between states, peoples and groups of individuals. In the context of German-Greek cooperation, the term denotes the process of coming to terms with the conflicts that exist to this day as a result of the atrocities committed by the Nazi regime in Greece during World War II. See also "reconciliation".

中文 - 释义:

在青少年儿童专业工作和国际青少年工作的语境下,该概念描述的活动旨在处理历史、冲突,并促进国家、民族和各群体之间和平。在德国与希腊的合作中,该概念尤其描述处理纳粹政权暴行而在希腊引起的冲突,现在仍然能感受到这些冲突的存在。参见词条:谅解;和解。

remembrance

中文: 记忆方面(开展)的工作
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Remembrance, or the construction of memory, can take place in many ways, e.g., using memorial services, memorial sites, commemorative events, eyewitness testimonials, museums, cemeteries, biographies, etc.,

中文 - 释义:

可以通过多种形式来进行记忆方面的工作,例如纪念性活动、纪念地、纪念日、时代证人、博物馆、墓地、传记等。

reparation

中文: 弥补;赔偿
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Reparation refers to compensation for an injustice suffered by an individual. Said compensation can help to repair or mitigate the damage caused, or can redress an imbalance. For instance, reparation may be made in recognition of losses suffered by surviving victims of the Nazi regime.

中文 - 释义:

指的是在个人承受的不公正情况下,采用用消除或减轻不公正的方法加以弥补,或予以赔偿,例如为纳粹时代的幸存受害者提供赔偿。

reparations

中文: 赔偿
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

On 10 September 1952, Germany signed an agreement (known as the Reparations Agreement) in Luxembourg pledging to introduce legislation to compensate victims of the Holocaust for losses to their livelihoods and assets. However, former forced labourers had to wait for years until said compensation was actually paid; in the years that followed, the Federal Republic of Germany merely paid compensation to individual states. Following a series of drawn-out negotiations, the Foundation "Remembrance, Responsibility and Future" (German acronym: EVZ) was established in 2000 under a law providing for payments to be made to victims of forced labour.

中文 - 释义:

1952年9月10日,德国在卢森堡签署协议,承诺制定法规,退回大屠杀受害者被没收的财产,予以赔偿。然而,强制劳工不得不等待多年,才获得赔偿。联邦德国根据所谓的全球协议,仅仅向一些国家支付赔偿。旷日持久的谈判后,“纪念、责任及未来”基金会于2000年成立,为强制劳工支付赔偿。

resentment

中文: 怨恨
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

A negative emotion triggered by prejudice, feelings of inferiority, envy or similar, often unconscious.

中文 - 释义:

这种情绪基于偏见、自卑感、嫉妒等类似情绪,常常是无意识的厌恶。

resistance

中文: 抵抗
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

There was resistance against the Nazi regime on the part of individuals, groups and institutions on the territory of the German Reich and in the Wehrmacht-occupied territories both prior to and during the Nazi era.

中文 - 释义:

抵抗纳粹主义,指的是德意志帝国领土内以及党卫军所占领的国家里,个人、团体和机构在纳粹独裁时期以及纳粹政府独裁之前,反抗纳粹政权。

resistance fighter

中文: 抵抗运动的战士
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

The term refers to an individual or group of individuals who, typically collectively, engage in resistance movements against a certain, usually political, power.

中文 - 释义:

抵抗运动的战士,这一概念指的是:通常是一个或多个人,参与集体抵抗运动,以抵抗特定的力量,通常是抵抗政治力量。

sabotage

中文: 破坏活动
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an economic or military process to achieve a certain (often political) objective. During World II, sabotage was one way to demonstrate resistance to the Nazi regime. For instance, Greek partisans committed acts of sabotage by attacking the offices of the German occupiers or ambushing military transports. German soldiers retaliated by massacring inhabitants of Kalavrita on the Peloponnese peninsular and of Distomo near Delphi.

中文 - 释义:

破坏活动,指的是为实现特定(通常是政治)目标,而蓄意破坏经济或军事活动。二战期间,人们使用破坏活动,抵抗纳粹主义。例如,希腊游击队进行了破坏活动,袭击了德国占领军办事处,破坏军事运输。为了报复这种抵抗行动,德国士兵在伯罗奔尼撒半岛的卡拉夫里塔、德尔福附近的迪斯托莫地区进行大屠杀。

search for traces, quest for traces

中文: 痕迹搜索
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Denotes the systematic search for traces, e.g., in connection with World War II or in the context of Holocaust remembrance.

中文 - 释义:

系统性搜索痕迹,例如二战相关情况的搜索,或大屠杀纪念活动框架下的搜索活动。

source

中文: (信息等)来源
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

A text, person or group from which or whom information is directly obtained.

中文 - 释义:

从这些文本或人(群),可以直接获取特定信息。

Star of David

中文: 犹太星
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

The yellow Star of David was introduced by the Nazi regime as a mandatory symbol that had to be worn by individuals who, according to the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, were legally considered Jewish.

中文 - 释义:

犹太星(黄星)是纳粹政府使用的一种强迫性标志,确定哪些人根据1935年纽伦堡法律的规定是犹太人。

Trümmerfrau

中文: (二战后)清除废墟的女工
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Trümmerfrauen (literally "rubble women") were women who cleared the rubble from the bombed-out cities because many men had fallen during the war or had been taken prisoner. The rubble had to be processed in such a way to make it usable for reconstruction. Some women took on the role voluntarily; others were obligated to do so by legislation adopted by the Allied Control Authority.

中文 - 释义:

(二战后)清除废墟的女工,指的是清除战争废墟的妇女,因为许多男性死于战争或被俘虏,女性必须处理碎片,将它们用于重建。一部分妇女自愿承担这项任务,另一部分妇女则是受到盟军控制委员会的法律要求而清理废墟。

victim

中文: 牺牲者;受害者
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

In a historical/political context, the term "victim" refers predominantly to victims of war, mass extermination and mass crime.

中文 - 释义:

在历史政治语境下,该概念特别指战争受害者,以及大规模毁灭和大规模犯罪的受害者。

view of history, understanding of history

中文: 历史观点看法
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

The term is generally taken to mean the sum total of the views of history maintained by an individual or a group.

中文 - 释义:

一般指的是一个人或一个团体的整体历史观点。

Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge

中文: 德国维护战争墓地民族联盟
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge is a humanitarian organisation charged by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany with recording, maintaining and caring for the graves of German war casualties abroad. In 1953, the Volksbund started to organise international youth exchanges and work camps throughout Europe. The education officers in the regional branches collaborate with schools and higher education establishments and carry out projects in war cemeteries both in Germany and internationally.

中文 - 释义:

德国维护战争墓地民族联盟注册协会,是一个人道主义组织,受联邦政府委托,在国外统计、保存和维护死亡于战争的德国人的坟墓。自1953年起,该联盟一直组织欧洲各地的国际青少年开展交流、参加工作营活动,其口号是“通过坟墓而获得和解——为和平而努力”。州级协会的教育专员与学校和大学合作,在国内外的战争墓地开展项目。

war grave

中文: 战争公墓
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

A war grave is a burial site for persons who died during a war.

中文 - 释义:

战争公墓,用来埋葬战争中被杀害的人(战争受害者)。

war memorial

中文: 战争纪念馆
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

A war memorial commemorates warriors or members of the armed forces (not the victims of war) who fell in a war. War memorials are part of the landscape in almost all countries that were involved in World War II. Many of their inscriptions were later extended to include the names of those fallen during World War II. War memorials have also been erected in other countries to commemorate other conflicts.

中文 - 释义:

战争纪念馆纪念在战争中丧生的士兵(而不是战争受害者)。几乎所有参加第一次世界大战的国家,都设有战争纪念馆,或者战争纪念碑、纪念地。许多纪念馆或纪念碑得到扩展,也纪念二次世界大战中死亡的士兵。在其他国家,人们也为了纪念其他冲突,修建战争纪念碑。

war reparations

中文: 支付战争赔款
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

War reparations are payments to cover damage or injury inflicted during a war. The term denotes a financial compensation or financial or material damages payable by the defeated party or country in return for alleged or actual damage inflicted on another, victorious, party or country to that party or country. As the term suggests, reparations are a form of "repair". The damage in question may relate to assets, real estate and human beings. The type and scope of war reparations are typically laid down in a peace treaty signed upon conclusion of hostilities.

中文 - 释义:

赔偿或支付战争赔款,是支付战争赔偿的形式。该概念描述的是:战败国对战胜国支付经济赔偿、以财政或实物的形式支付的损害赔偿,用来赔偿所谓的或真正的战争损失。赔偿旨在让战败者承担战争负担(即帮助“修复”已造成的损害)。战争负担,包括对财产、房地产和民众造成的破坏。通常结束战争冲突的和平条约,会制定赔偿的种类和程度。

Wehrmacht

中文: 德国国防军
主题领域:
英文 - 释义:

Wehrmacht is the term used to denote the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany.

中文 - 释义:

德国国防军,是纳粹德国军队的统称。

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